You might as well be better off waking up at 12 but actually getting shit done. So get in the habit of waking up, priming yourself for success with a good morning routine, and then targeting your most important task for the day immediately.
Focus on the one thing that will get you the most results and will bring you the farthest ahead. Think about one thing, that if you accomplish only that one thing. For a writer, that might be writing, for a musician, that might be practicing or composing a song, for a salesperson, that might be doing sales calls.
The only solution that you have is to dive straight into that task. Combine this with waking up early and you will transform your whole life in a matter of days.
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You are waking up early, you are going for your one thing that will bring you the most results, but there is one step that you should add in between that will set you up for massive success and that is a morning routine. A good morning routine might be waking up, meditating, writing out your goals, visualizing, doing some light stretches and then getting to work.
If you are hardcore, throw in a cold shower and get ready to crush your day. Too many people wake up without direction. They walk through life aimlessly. I know this from first-hand experience and you might be the same. That is why it is so important to write down your goals for every day. I like to do it in the evening before I go to bed because that is when I have the clearest vision of what I want to accomplish the next day and then I can just wake up and immediately start crushing.
You can script out your day or do a simple to-do list. Focus on a couple of really important things and number them or rate them. I am talking about a vision, an end goal, a purpose. Something that gets you up in the morning and makes your balls tingle when you think about it.
This will fuel your everyday actions. This will probably change with time and you might not exactly know what it is right now, but have something that you are working on. Otherwise, you will just walk aimlessly without a direction and most of your efforts will be futile. There is something about repeating your goals over and over again and doing affirmations that just works like forbidden magic. Whether you believe in higher powers, manifesting and the law of attraction, or like to explain things in simple, rational terms, repeating your goals will help you achieve them.
Repeating your goals strengthens your beliefs and makes you laser-focused on achieving them. Bring emotions into it. You might think this is cliche but just try it for a while. Once you are clear on what you want, it is time to figure out a plan of how to get there and then executing on that plan. So get clear on what you want, and then develop a detailed plan on what you are going to do and provide to get there. And then act on it with firm belief!
In business and any other endeavor you are taking part in, it is important to know where you are going. We already established that. That is why you set out clear goals. The next step is to know if you are actually progressing towards your goals. Once you have your goal, and you have developed a plan to get there, you need to start taking action and then after a while, see if that action is actually leading you closer towards your results. If not, then you need to adjust. That is why it is so important to keep track of your progress — not just in business, but really with any goal in any area of your life.
Often times, it means the universe has a way better way for you to handle things. Always be open to that possibility. I always heard about these powerful important people journaling but never got the appeal of it until I actually tried it. It is hard to explain but there is just something about journaling that works magically as well. It is as if you have some kind of magic pen with godly powers and anything you write will happen. Magically the pen will just flow and ideas will come to you. You will be able to see clearly.
Journaling gets the weight off your shoulders. It helps you process things and get a new understanding of them. You will also find solutions and ideas to problems and it will happen just by the mere fact of you writing that shit down, instead of obsessing over it in your mind. Just combine everything in one notebook and quickly list 5 things you are grateful for in it. This is actually harder than you think.
But as you go on you will find more and more things that you are grateful for and the act of writing it out will instantly put you in these emotions of gratefulness. The more you focus on the things you are grateful for, the more good things show up in your life. So you want to experience growth and improve yourself but you are trying to do that without doing anything that makes you uncomfortable? Great, you are setting yourself up for disappointment. You need to stop taking the easy road. If you want to grow and become your best self, you will have to start leaving your comfort zone.
It is the things that you are avoiding that you need to tackle the most. You will experience the most amount of growth and have the most amount of fun when you leave your comfort zone. Commit to getting out of your comfort zone every single day. This could be something simple like talking to a stranger on the street. You will soon see that you will experience life in a completely different way than before. You will finally start living. So you want to start a business and escape the rat race? With the development of the internet and social media, starting a business has never been easier.
More is obviously better but it has to be quality effort. Execution is key and it is what will get you from point A to point B. If there is one thing you are here in this world for, then it is sharing your gift with the world and fulfilling your purpose. Denying the world of your highest gift is a crime for humanity.
Everybody has this special gift or even multiple gifts. You might not think you have anything worthy to share, or you are afraid to share it, but trust me, you need to do it. This could be in the form of business, contributing value with services or products, or in the form of creative outlets like art. Either way, share your gift with the world and do it openly. You will get criticized for it. You might be hated for it. You might be loved for it. But none of that matters. The only thing that matters is sharing your gift and giving it all you can.
If there is one thing that defines the super successful is that they are masters of their craft. They outwork everyone and spend hours practicing each day. Whatever is that you are doing, work on improving your craft every day. Become so good, they can not ignore you anymore. If you are a musician, you need to practice your instrument. If you are a writer, you need to write every day. Give yourself an hour of quality practice each day. Put away your phone, shut down your computer and get to work.
But that is only one part of the puzzle, the other is …. If you want to succeed in any endeavor, especially business ventures, you will need to study marketing and business. Too many people are afraid of marketing and think it is evil. Yet, it is only a tool that you can use to share your gift with as many people as possible. I know too many great artists, musicians and creative professionals who are beyond great but they lack the business and marketing side of things. Build it and they will come is only partially true.
Learn how to market yourself for success. Visualizing is a powerful tool that will help you create your dream life. It is pretty simple. Sit or lie down in a quiet space, and start visualizing in great detail what you want to happen. Get a clear vision of your dream life. You can focus on the big picture or a single goal. Add in as much sensory vividness as you can.
Feel it as if it were truly real. The feeling is the key here. The power lies within you matching the feeling of what you want to happen. How would you truly feel and act if you would attract these huge amounts of money into your life or that house you always wanted? And they are the same thoughts repeating over and over again? These thoughts are running in the background on autopilot are creating your reality. They are programs that shape you and make you the person you are today.
They are responsible for your habits, actions and ultimately the results you have in your life. These programs are formed early in your formative years as a child. You observe your parents and the people around you and adopt their programming. Repeating over and over again what you want will create and strengthen new beliefs that will soon turn into programs that will lead you down the road of success.
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Visualizing your goals and your dream life is great. But what about the other The key is acting as if. When you visualize your goals as already real, you need to imagine them so vividly that you can actually feel them like reality. Once you get to that point, take that feeling and carry it with you the whole day. Start acting as if what you want has already happened. Start acting like the person you want to be. These will be very subtle things.
Like your reactions to what others say or do, or external circumstances. But the more you act as if it already happened, the more the reality around you will change to mirror what you have imagined. Limiting beliefs are beliefs that are holding you back from unleashing your full potential and becoming the person you are destined to be. You come into this life perfect but are then bombarded from outside forces with social conditioning that tells what you can and can not do.
Early on, you develop these limiting beliefs that are rooted deep down in your subconscious. Think about yourself as a PC. Getting rid of limiting beliefs will supercharge your progress and get you to where you want to be. Meditation, forgiving, journaling and deep inner work are all great methods to let go of limiting beliefs. I have heard good things about the Lefkoe Method of releasing limiting beliefs. The first thoughts you have when you get out of bed are going to determine the rest of your day. I have tested this so many times and it never fails me.
I started doing this when I was working a crappy job and every day on there was hell.
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I hated getting out of bed in the morning and my thoughts reflected that. But when I started telling myself the day was going to be amazing, it actually turned out great. I only realized this in hindsight but the only difference was this morning mantra. It is like you are commanding the day to go as you want it to. Revision is a tool that will create wonders. It works like magic. Every night before you go to bed, take out your notepad and start revising your day like it was your perfect day.
Change any bad thing that happened and make it how you would have wanted it to happen. Use emotions. Feel it. Expand your imagination and really feel as if the day happened like you wanted it to happen. You will see just how wonderful revisioning works. Your environment is affecting you a lot more than you think. Especially the people around you. If most of the people you hang out with are negative types, meaning they always complain, and criticize you, try to drag you down, it will affect you.
If the people you hang out with are all broke or average earners that hate their jobs, chances are you will be somewhere on the same spectrum. I experienced that first-hand when I was growing up in my small town, where all the people were living in this sort of bubble. Everybody was negative and belittling any sort of success or dreams someone might have. It was very hard to keep the drive and motivation to keep moving forward. When I finally moved to a bigger city, I instantly connected with like-minded individuals that were often times a lot more successful than me, and I quickly got up to their level, just by associating with them.
Negative people are the worst. They are constantly complaining about their shitty lives and try to keep you down with them. Any step you do towards a better life is criticized and belittled. They will ruin you in the long run. Cut them out of your lives. Even if that means you will be alone for a certain time. In fact, that is even better. You can focus on improving yourself and working towards your goals. Trust me, you will soon attract the right people in your life, that want to grow with you and actually have similar interests. It was the same for me.
All the people in my environment were negative. Every single one of them. I just stopped tolerating that reality even though that meant I would be alone for a while. It is not the end. You will find the right people that you will actually love to be around. A mentor is someone who has been through it already. He has already made all the mistakes and negative experiences and he is where you want to be. You will get insights into what habits and behaviors make this person successful. Just associating with him and being in his close environment will brush off on you and you will become more successful.
Go out and join clubs of successful people or go to networking events. Reach out to people in your area. Offer value. Get on YouTube, buy a book or buy a course or an online coach that can help you get to where you want to be. There are plenty of successful people online who share their advice with your for free. I strongly believe that every person has ideas that can be life-changing. And not just one, but many.
I have ideas for new things every day. You probably do, too. Sometimes you are lucky, and you remind yourself of the idea but other ideas are lost for eternity. The solution is simple. From now on, write down every single idea in a notebook or use a digital notebook like Evernote. Even ideas that you think are absolutely crazy or out of this world, or you would never know how to execute on them. You never know, when you will need them. After all, it only takes one simple idea to change your entire life. Taking risks makes you feel alive.
You will have to take some huge risks to go after your dreams and get what you want. Whether it is a business you want to start, quitting your job and following your passion or going and asking out that cutie on the street. If you feel inspired to do something, and your heart tells you to do it but your brain comes up with all the risks and doubts — jump straight in.
I am not telling you there is a guarantee that you will succeed or win or everything will be fine. But I firmly believe that it is the right path — if it feels inspired. Even if you fail — which will happen a lot — you will learn to catch yourself. You will be grateful that you took that risk and made that experience. Because you are stronger for it. You have grown and learned what you can do better next time. You have experienced a new facette of life.
Just jump in and let life guide you. You will arrive where you need to arrive. What differentiates the super successful from the ones they leave behind in the shadow is their willingness and their ability to go the extra mile. You need to start committing to always give your best in every situation. But here is the thing. Your best is way more than you think it is. I know what you will say. Define a new limit for yourself. Your only limitation is your mind. But if you think and truly believe that you can go further, your mind will find a way. Learn to use it and overcome your limitations.
You will reach new heights you have never thought possible. Whether it is working out, hustling or any other activity where you might need to push yourself. Do it. The more value you give, the more you receive in return. The more problems you can solve, the more you earn. The bigger the problem you can solve, the bigger the paycheck you receive.
This should be something that you seek to do in every interaction you have. I would argue that it might be the single most important factor that decides over the quality of your life. Your diet will control the way you feel, look and function in this world. A bad diet will screw up your health, which will lead to you feeling terrible and not having the energy to grab life by the balls. A bad diet can lead to mental disorders, depression, fatigue, all sorts of health problems, being too fat or too skinny, erectile dysfunction, heart disease and all sorts of things.
A good diet will clear up all those problems and get you back on track. It will make you see and think clearly and it will get your mood back to where it supposed to be naturally, a state of bliss. Your energy will skyrocket and you will suddenly have the power to take on any challenge that comes your way. The aura and presence you give off will change. You will start to emanate an aura that attracts people and pulls them towards you. There is no perfect diet and no one size fits all approach that fits everyone. Mainstream nutrition is totally missing the point and slowly killing us.
Paleo, veganism, vegetarianism, high carb, low carb. You name it, I tried them all. And they are all missing crucial points. Finding the right diet is far more complex and individual than simply leaving out carbs, or fats or following a dietary cult. And yet, it is actually far more relaxed and easy than you might think. The health archives on this blog are a good start for you. Good sleep is vital for your energy levels.
If you are tired and your sleep sucks, you will have difficulty to find the energy to go and get what you really want. You have trouble focusing and your brain fog eliminates any value you could produce. And I am not talking about just quantity. I am also talking about quality. Sure, having a nice 7 to 9 hours every night is definitely valuable, but also focus on optimizing your actual sleep. Develop a good sleeping hygiene. This starts with a bedtime routine e. The right times are also critical. You should sleep with the cycles that are natural for the human body.
Go to sleep when the sun goes down e. Of course, these are just guidelines. I suck at sticking to them too because I just love going out at night talking to women and socializing. But when I do, it makes a whole lot of a difference in the quality and performance of my work, my workouts and regeneration. Hormones are truly king when it comes to your body. I would go as far as saying that your hormonal profile shapes all of your life experience. People who grow up with an optimal hormonal profile tend to develop into confident, strong, naturally attractive, outgoing, charismatic and healthy people.
People with suboptimal hormonal profiles often have all sorts of problems, including health problems, suboptimal bodily development, are more shy and depressed and see life in a totally different way. Trust me, hormones are more powerful than you think. Did you ever wonder why some people just naturally are more outgoing, attractive and healthy than others?
Sure, it has to do with their upbringing and all of that, but hormones play a key role in that. The answer is hormones. In particular, I like focusing on testosterone and thyroid. Thyroid is like the mother hormone. If that is messed up, all your other bodily functions will be messed up as well. Testosterone is the hormone that makes you a man. A high testosterone level will naturally take care of things like social anxiety, depression, lack of confidence, attraction with women and all the other stuff that plagues most of modern, effeminate men.
Focus on optimizing your hormones and your life will change. Although the bulk of your calories and nutrients should come from real food and a healthy diet, supplements are great to fix nutrient deficiencies and improve your health. To combat that, there is no other way than getting some good supplements that take care of all your nutrient needs that your diet is missing. Not all supplements are created equal though. I wrote a whole article on the lies of the supplement industry. Not only our food is screwed up with chemicals and nasty stuff that our bodies were never meant to process.
Most of the stuff you use on a daily basis like your shampoo, soap, toothpaste, deodorant, shaving products, and all other personal care items are stuffed with chemicals that disrupt your bodies natural awesomeness while creating a suboptimal state of stress, disease and ultimately make you sick. They destroy your hormonal profile, lower your testosterone and turn you into a weak wimp.
Throw out all the chemical laden products you have and replace them with good and healthy natural alternatives. There are plenty of tutorials out there for DIY natural toothpaste, deodorant and more. Your body needs water to function properly and survive. Giving your body the right amount of water it needs is key and should be one of the things you have on point every day.
Especially if you spend a lot of time in hot weather or work out a lot, your body will need enough water to replenish what it has lost. There are no set guidelines of how much water you should consume daily and opinions differ. The general consensus is drink until your urine is clear or slightly yellow which is optimal. If it is dark yellow, then you are dehydrated. Been there, done that. It will do your body more harm than good. Not only will you be pissing every 5 minutes, but you will disrupt your body again. Balance is key. Experiment a little until you find the right amount of water for you to stay perfectly hydrated.
Exercising energizes you, reduces stress, and makes you fit and healthy. So make sure you are active every single day. This can be anything that gets you moving like sex, running, stretching, corrective exercise, or walking which is one of my favorites because it always gives me clarity and the best ideas. In our modern day world, where most of us are sitting around in front of computers, smartphones, and TVs for hours every day, bad posture is almost inevitable. The only thing you can do is actively work against it.
Identify your postural dysfunctions and start doing some simple stretching and strengthening routines that will effectively correct your postural problems over time and give you new life. You will feel rejuvenated, energized and vital. You will become more attractive, and once again strengthen and develop that presence and aura that pulls others towards you.
I have written guides on how to correct your posture , how to correct anterior pelvic tilt and how to correct posterior pelvic tilt. More groundbreaking posture related articles will follow soon. Your feet are the base of your body and affect all of its alignment. They are carrying all your weight every day and if they are out of alignment, other parts of your body will be misaligned too and take up a lot more beating than they should. The problem is, with our modern footwear, our feet are getting destroyed and misaligned by the minute.
The solution are myofascial massages to loosen up your feet, corrective exercises, the proper barefoot shoes and correct toes which will help you realign your feet to their natural position. We do not use our bodies as nature intended. Instead, we sit on our asses all day and spent the rest of the time operating in suboptimal movement patterns. Releasing these knots will restore a lot of your alignment, help your body regenerate faster and move better and will lead to a better and healthier body in the long run.
You can release these knots with myofascial release. This is a practice where you use a foam roller or at advanced stages even a lacrosse ball , and release these tight spots by rolling over them in a methodological fashion. I recommend the Functional Patterns Week-Program which is a great resource to restoring your posture that includes a lot of effective myofascial release exercises. A big thing that will make your body a lot healthier is a standing desk.
I know, you probably hear it a lot and by now it seems like an expensive gimmick but trust me, it is not. Sitting is the new smoking might be a little bit of an exaggeration, but sitting is definitely hurting you a lot more than you think, especially in the quantities we do it nowadays. We basically spend our whole day sitting and barely move anymore.
Sitting kills your posture, weakens your glutes and shortens your hip flexors producing all kinds of nasty postural problems like anterior pelvic tilt or kyphosis. These things will come and get you and they are definitely preventing you from being your best version. An easy fix that keeps you a lot more active and has a ton of health benefits is a standing desk. Alternating between sitting and standing, and taking frequent breaks to move around are a good way to avoid any of the issues that usually come with prolonged working hours.
You have been taking a crap wrong and you probably have been doing it your whole life. It leads to lots of ailments like trouble defecating, hemorrhoids, erectile dysfunction and lots and lots of more problems. Our bodies are designed to take a shit while squatting down. This will ensure proper alignment of the gastrointestinal tract and help you eliminate a lot easier without any strain. Some pretty clever folks have already thought about this and probably made massive bank with their simple, yet genius invention of a Squatty Potty.
Or you could just build one yourself …. Blue light is slowly destroying you without you even noticing it exists. Now, that might seem like an exaggeration, but it is fact that too much blue light exposure, especially at night, will disrupt your sleep and negatively affect your circadian rhythm.
As you know, sleep is vital for your health and energy levels and getting good and restful sleep will ensure you will have all the power you need to dominate your day. On top of that, sleep is the time were your damaged muscles recover slowly transforming you into the Greek god you are supposed to be, and important hormones like testosterone are produced. You definitely do not want to mess with your sleep so limit your blue light exposure.
Easy, right? Well, there is one problem. If you are like most people and you work on your computer or you simply browse online well into the night, then I can guarantee you that your sleep will suffer.
The solution is this one handy app called f. Get yourself a similar app for your phone or use Apples built-in Nightshift feature if you are on iPhone. Another way to go the extra mile are blue light blocking glasses. Oil pulling is an ancient practice where you take up a spoonful of high-quality oil and swish it up your mouth for 20 minutes. I know, sounds gross but is actually really effective. Oil pulling might be the best thing you can do for your oral health.
It pulls out all the toxins and bad bacteria in your mouth, strengthens and remineralizes your teeth and gums, prevents and reverses gum disease and cavities, reliefs jaw pain, heals dry lips and eliminates bad breath. But there are more supposed benefits that affect your whole body. The theory is that your mouth is connected to every part of your body so doing oil pulling will affect all of your body too and might have benefits in terms of better hair, skin, nails, digestion or even energy and mood levels.
I recommend you use organic and fresh sesame oil which is supposed to be the most effective. Use a spoonful of oil and rigorously swish it around your mouth for about 20 months. Once you are finished, do not swallow it! It will be full of toxins. Instead, spit it out in the trash! What if I told you that most people breathe wrong? You would probably think I am kidding but I am totally serious. Most people never even think about their breathing. The stresses of modern day life, postural dysfunctions and bad habits lead people to shallow breathing patterns.
You will find that breathing deeply helps you relax and calms your mind. It also improves your energy levels and general health. You will likely breathe very shallow. Calm your breathing down and notice how you relax and start taking control of the situation again. Your face is the way it is because of the habits and nutrition of the modern world.
Today, more and more people are running around with collapsed faces and malocclusion. The reason for this is complex and I will write tons of detailed articles on this in the future, but for now, keep in mind to have your mouth closed at all times, breath through your nose, even at night tape it shut if you need to , chew tons of hard stuff to workout your jaw and keep the tongue on the roof of your mouth. Having good posture, lots of sleep and a healthy diet will help, too. This will at least prevent your face from collapsing further and in theory, although very slowly, will grow your face and turn it into what God wanted it to be — a healthy, attractive and beautiful face, with a bright perfect smile, a defined jawline, popping cheekbones and hollow cheeks that just gets panties wet.
We are working on permanently and fully fixing and reversing this. For now, check out this educating lecture by Dr. Mike Mew:. We all sit on our asses way too much every day. It is unhealthy and not our natural way to live. Working out and activity will energize and strengthen your body and give you back your vitality. You will look better, become more in tune with your body and become a lot more comfortable in your own skin. Working out also benefits your mind and makes you smarter.
It is an essential part of life that you should follow at all costs. Moving your body every day is key. Go for regular walks, or ride your bicycle. Having lots of sex is great, too. Eventually, you should join a gym and start to follow a regular workout routine that will shape and strengthen your body and develop a physique, that you and the women around you will love. You will carve your body into the machine that it was supposed to be.
You will feel like a million bucks. The dudes around you will respect you. Women will drool over it. Start with the 7 golden exercises to build a muscular and aesthetic physique. Here is the thing. If you want a nice, muscular and aesthetic physique, you need to start a workout routine and start lifting weights. There is no way around this. No running, cardio or dieting will put huge slaps of muscles on you, that will really make your physique stand out. You need weights and machines and classic bodybuilding strength training for that. So get on a correct workout routine.
Start lifting weights regularly. Get stronger and build the physique of your dreams. It will be one of the most rewarding things you will ever do in your life. If you are only getting started with working out, our Fitness Guides should be a good place to begin your journey towards godly aesthetics. Too many people these days think there is only one way to train to get results.
I used to be like that, too. There is only one way to train and that is the one that works for you. So train intuitively. Vary the rep ranges, the ranges of motions and see what works best for you. Perfect form. Progressive overload. Once I started training like a traditional bodybuilder with high reps and shorter ranges of motions, really contracting, isolating and feeling the muscles is when I got the results I wanted.
The things most people lack is calves guilty , forearms, traps, and a huge neck. These body parts are always visible and if you have developed them, they instantly turn you into a slayer. Yeah I know, the size of your calves, forearms and the like are hugely influenced by your genetics, but never let genetics be an excuse. If you actually start training them, like any other body part, frequently and with high volume, you will see that you can still make a lot of progress. People never even think about training the neck because they think it is purely genetic.
But yet I found that it is hugely responsive to some simple training and it makes a big difference in how attractive and big you look. A workout journal might be the most useful and important tool I have ever found to build an impressive phyisque and constantly progess in my workout journey. Huge dudes like Brandon Carter swear by it. A workout journal is a journal where you record everything about your training. I am talking about routines, exercises, variations, rep ranges, rest intervals, weights used etc. You can even go further which I recommend and track sleep times, mood and what you eat.
With such a training log, you will be able to see if you have actually progressed or not, and if so, what routines, exercises etc have corresponded with your progress. As I said, with any goal you have, you need to track your progress. What you can measure, you can improve. As I said, I used to be all about that and that was all I cared about but I was brainwashed by the fitness industry. Progress is what is important to you. If you want to look good naked and develop an aesthetic physique, then track the progress of your weight, body fat, but most importantly use pictures and actually measure the size of your muscles.
That is the best way to see if you are actually progressing. People judge you on the way you look. Most people can instantly see what kind of person you are by the way you dress. Sloppy and irresponsible people who do not have their shit together dress poorly. Successful people, confident people, rebels, dress with a sense of style. When you start dressing better and stepping out of your comfort zone, you will feel more confident in yourself. You will feel a lot more comfortable in your own skin.
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Dressing well is a big part of it. Some simple rules you need to follow are buying clothes that fit and accentuate your body, and mainly sticking to a simple wardrobe. Nothing too over the top, trendy and no hypebeast-nothing. Dressing well is awesome and a big step in the right direction, especially if you have been dressing like shit before.
But it is only the first step to really master the game of style. The real key is in developing your own unique style. That style will be a reflection of who you really are. It will reflect your passions and your character and make you unique and stand out while still looking damn good. Women will love it. Dudes will think you are cool. That is something that nobody can really teach you. The best thing you can do is a figuring out what works and looks good in terms of style and then b emulating and copying people who inspire you.
Simply let it come to you and develop naturally. Too many people are walking around with rats nests on their head. They have never even given thought about their hair. Yet it is probably the biggest and most important thing that will influence your attractiveness that you truly have control over. A good haircut can make you go from unattractive and invisible to a sex magnet. This is just as mandatory as having a good style, grooming and working out. These things can really take you up the attractiveness scale. I experienced the power of hair firsthand. Go to a good barber and tell him what you want or ask him what he recommends.
Your face shape will be a huge determining factor on what haircut will actually suit you. Grooming is the last piece of the style puzzle. You got nice fitting clothes, you have gotten yourself a nice haircut that fits your face, now you need take care of the rest of your grooming. Grow out a nice beard if you can and take care of it, clean up your eyebrows , manscape, shower regularly, brush your teeth and avoid bad breath, take care of your skin, use some sort of deodorant and get yourself a nice ladykiller fragrance.
You are now all set and presentable to conquer the world. Not only will others see you in a new, positive way and treat you a lot better, but you will also feel a lot better about yourself which will really go a long way. Making money has never been easier than it is in our day and age.
The internet has gifted us all the ability to make good money doing something you enjoy. If you want to go a step further, you can become rich. It is all a matter of how much effort you are willing to put in. But at the end of the day, starting an online business will be the best thing you will do in your life. An online business gives you the freedom to make money on your terms. The internet never sleeps so you will be making money while you sleep as well. You can scale your business and go from working a dead-end job you hate to financial abundance doing something you actually enjoy.
Instead of getting rid of them, or even better, giving them away or selling them, we keep them and tell ourselves excuses that we might one day need them. You know deep down, that you will never use that thing that you stache away. Use that money to reinvest in yourself. Invest in books, knowledge, courses, good food, supplements, a gym membership, nice clothes or your business. I remember being broke and not having money to eat. The masses do it.
It is what makes them poorer and the wealthy richer and richer by the day. From now on, only buy things that you truly need. Only buy new clothes when you need them. Use all the money you earn to truly invest in yourself. You will be able to gain knowledge and then reinvest that into assets that produce money and make you financially independent. When I first got a job after school to save up for my business, I never spent a dime because I knew I would invest all of it into something greater.
I was tempted constantly to buy things like a new phone, or new clothes or whatever. And I was right. I ended up needing all the money I could get and even more. Even with the things you absolutely need, live below your means. You can live off of so little every week, just by buying the cheaper brands and cooking for yourself. People blow hundreds of dollars on food or eating out every month that they could invest in their business. In fact, you will actually find that it is not only very possible to eat healthy and give your body fuel to build muscle at a budget, but unhealthy things are actually often times a lot more expensive than the healthy alternatives.
With well over peer-reviewed papers and a half dozen books as sole author or co-editor to her credit, Barrett has received wide recognition in the form of honors and awards too numerous to mention, notably election as Fellow of the American Psychological Association APA in and the American Association for the Advancement of Science AAAS in Beck was born in Providence, Rhode Island, in His parents were Jewish immigrants to the US from Russia. He is undoubtedly best known as the person primarily responsible for the cognitive approach to therapy for depression, which in its modern form of cognitive-behavioral therapy CBT has become the gold standard for the clinical treatment of depression, with a much higher success rate than other types of psychotherapy.
Beck is also widely known as the author of the Beck Depression Inventory BDI , a self-reporting questionnaire designed to measure the severity of depression, which has been revised twice and is still widely used, but which also spawned a whole industry of similar inventories. Beck was also an important contributor to the theory of learned helplessness. The indefatigable author or co-author of over peer-reviewed articles and the author, co-author, or editor of some two dozen technical books, Beck is one of the most highly esteemed and influential psychiatrists of the twentieth century.
Berridge was born in He also received his PhD from Penn, in The master question that his lab raises and attempts to answer is the way in which affective states are generated in the brain, including pleasure, desire and appetite, emotion, and affective valence the subjective scale from positive to negative value according to which most affective states present themselves to us.
Berridge is the author or co-author of approximately peer-reviewed research papers and chapters of edited volumes, and is the co-editor with Morten L. Bloom was born in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, in His doctoral dissertation on the subject of language acquisition was supervised by Susan Carey. More specific projects that have grown out of this overriding interest include the exploration of moral judgments in babies, of the role that anger, disgust, and empathy play in the moral lives of adults, of our commonsense understanding of ourselves as possessing free will, of the nature of pleasure especially, the pleasure we derive from fiction , of the psychology of religious belief and atheism, and of our commonsense feeling that our self, or soul, is separate from our body.
Through his popular books, his frequent op-ed pieces and essays in such venues as the New York Times , the Guardian , and the Atlantic , his blogs on Slate , and his interviews with National Public Radio NPR and elsewhere, Bloom has communicated his fascinating and influential ideas to a wide audience far beyond the normal confines of academia. Buss was born in Indianapolis, Indiana, in Buss works in the area known as evolutionary psychology. Evolutionary psychology traces its roots back to sociobiology, the term proposed by Edward O. Wilson in his landmark study of the same name on the evolution of eusociality —-strongly cooperative societies in which individuals regularly sacrifice themselves for the good of the group.
It proved so controversial at the time that the brand name sociobiology became tarnished; the field subsequently morphed into what is now called evolutionary psychology. The basic idea is that stereotypical male and female mating strategies reflect the selection pressures of the human EEA. In a nutshell, this means that males were better off in Darwinian terms of contributing genes to future populations if they chose mates on the basis of appearance as markers of health and fertility, whereas females were better off in the Darwinian sense if they chose mates on the basis of social status as a marker of their ability to supply resources to the female and her offspring.
Similarly, males are predisposed to promiscuity because of the low physiological cost of their gametes and to intense jealousy to avoid being duped into giving resources to offspring not genetically related to them , whereas females are predisposed to give the appearance of fidelity though not necessarily always the reality. Latterly, Buss has extended his theorizing to the human propensity for murderous violence. Buss is the author or co-author of more than peer-reviewed journal articles, and the author, co-author, or editor of some dozen books.
Cosmides was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in At Harvard, she worked closely with famed evolutionary theorist Robert L.
The 50 Most Influential Psychologists in the World
Cosmides, who throughout her career has worked closely and published jointly with her husband, anthropologist John Tooby, is one of the founders of the sub-discipline known as evolutionary psychology see the entry for David M. Buss, above. As Cosmides has put it:. Evolutionary psychology weaves together cognitive science, human evolution, hunter gatherer studies, neuroscience, psychology and evolutionary biology, in an attempt to understand and map the human mind and brain. Her work has been extraordinarily wide-ranging, analyzing from an evolutionary point of view everything from the psychology of cooperation, coalition and friendship formation, incest avoidance, and autism, to threat interpretation, predator-prey relationships, visual attention, statistical reasoning, and multiple memory systems.
Cosmides has stated that one reason for casting such a wide net is to illustrate how fruitful and productive evolutionary psychology analyses can be. She is the author or co-author of some 90 peer-reviewed journal articles and chapters of edited volumes, as well as the co-editor of an influential early work in the field, The Adapted Mind , among other volumes. Stanley Hall Lecturer. He and his family spent time in an Italian internment camp during the war, but after the war was over he was able to complete his secondary school education in Rome.
He emigrated to the US in , at the age of In particular, he is closely associated with the concept of flow. He argues that flow-generating tasks are ones that people experience as rewarding for their own sake, as opposed to merely instrumental to some end. He further argues that fundamentally happy people are able to tap into their capacity for flow on a regular basis. He has described this experience in the following terms:. Being completely involved in an activity for its own sake.
The ego falls away. Time flies. Every action, movement, and thought follows inevitably from the previous one, like playing jazz. In addition to personality psychology, his ideas have been influential in the fields of business management and education. Damon was born in Brockton, Massachusetts, in As a developmental psychologist, Damon has focused his research efforts particularly on the intellectual and social development of children, adolescents, and young adults, but also, to a lesser degree, on psychological development of persons throughout the lifespan.
His work has consisted principally of large-scale empirical studies, based on both original field research questionnaires and meta-studies of the developmental psychology literature. More specifically, Damon has been critical of changes in the conventional wisdom regarding child-rearing in our society over the past couple of generations. As he summarizes the point: Less is expected of the young, and in turn less is received. Damon is the author or co-author of about peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters, and the author, co-author, or editor of some 18 books in all.
The recipient of many awards and honors, Damon has received grants supporting his research from such prestigious organizations as the John D. Davidson was born in New York City in Davidson is famous for espousing Buddhist traditions of mindfulness and meditation as important empirical phenomena worthy of scientific investigation, as well as important techniques for achieving inner peace and spiritual growth.
Davidson is a close friend of the 14th Dalai Lama and himself meditates regularly. Davidson has published many peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters. He is also the author, co-author, or editor of more than a dozen books. Diener was born in Glendale, California, in All other life circumstances education, marital status, financial status, etc.
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However, Diener found that, all other factors being equal, extraverts still tend to be happier than introverts, leading to the hypothesis that the extraverted personality type is inherently more rewarding, fostering happiness that leads to gregarious behavior, not the other way around. In short, people find happy people attractive.
In other work, Diener has found that subjective well-being has measurable positive effects on health and longevity. On the contrary, Diener has found that many people do not bounce back from devastating life events, and never return to their previous level of subjective well-being. The good news is that since the so-called set-point for subjective well-being appears not to be immutable, therapeutic intervention may potentially be beneficial. Finally, in recent years Diener has begun to explore some of the implications of his findings for politics and public policy, notably in a widely read paper he co-wrote with Martin Seligman see below , Beyond Money: Toward an Economy of Well-Being.
Diener, who has a very high citation h-index score of , has published more than peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters. He is also the author, co-author, or editor of some dozen books. Ekman was born in Washington, DC, in Following a one-year internship at the Langley Porter Neuropsychiatric Institute, a teaching hospital which is part of the Department of Psychiatry of the University of California, San Francisco, Ekman obtained his PhD in clinical psychology from Adelphi University in He has developed a highly detailed atlas of emotions linked to more than 10, distinguishable facial expressions.
His work has been widely influential, but also controversial. This claim flies in the face of the deeply entrenched relativism within the field of cultural anthropology. In another example, Ekman has done extensive work on the differences between spontaneous genuine and simulated deceptive emotions which may be detected in facial expressions. This work has given rise to various screening techniques some of which have been adopted by the Transportation Security Administration which Ekman claims provide us with the best lie detection technology available today.
However, the studies Ekman has carried out to back up these claims have come under sustained criticism. Ekman has published some peer-reviewed journal articles or book chapters, and is the author, co-author, or editor of some 15 books. Fahrenberg was born in Berlin in Following undergraduate and graduate studies in psychology, sociology and philosophy in Freiburg, London, and Hamburg, Fahrenberg did his doctoral and post-doctoral work at the University of Freiburg, completing his Habilitationsschrift on the psychophysiological roots of personality there in Fahrenberg co-founded the Psychophysiology Research Group PRG at the University of Freiburg in , and in he became Chair of the Psychology Department, a position he held until his retirement in From this academic perch, Fahrenberg exerted a major influence on psychology throughout the German-speaking world and beyond.
At the PRG, he conducted pioneering research in a number of fields, including the neural correlates of personality, the link between personality and illness, cardiovascular rehabilitation, and life satisfaction. The PRG also developed innovative forms of physiological monitoring of subjects, known as ambulatory monitoring or ambulatory assessment, to assist in research on behavior in everyday situations. In addition, the PRG also developed a number of important tests and personality scales, notably, the Freiburg Personality Inventory FPI , which is comparable to the American 16PF Questionnaire and is the most frequently used such assessment tool in German-speaking countries.
Fahrenberg has co-authored some journal articles with other members of the PRG, as well as editing a number of textbooks. In his later years, Fahrenberg also published a number of articles on the history of psychology as a scientific discipline, the philosophy of science, and the conceptual interactions between psychology and philosophy. Gardner was born in Scranton, Pennsylvania, in After a stint at the London School of Economics, he returned to Harvard, where he obtained his PhD in developmental psychology in , working under the supervision of famed developmental psychologist Jerome Bruner and philosopher Nelson Goodman.
He is currently the John H. Gardner is a developmental psychologist who has primarily focused on child development and the psychology of education. He is without a doubt best known for his theory of multiple intelligences —-the highly influential idea that the sort of intelligence measured by standardized IQ tests is only one among a variety of types of intelligence deployed by human beings in their interactions with the world around them especially the social world.
A number of observers have pointed out that there is very little empirical support for the theory. It must be said, too, that while many educators pay lip service to the theory, they have been slow putting it into practice in an everyday classroom setting. In later years, Gardner began exploring the implications of the theory of multiple intelligences for other areas, such as business school training. Gardner has close to peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters to his credit, not to mention several hundred op-ed pieces, essays, blog posts, and other articles aimed at a popular audience.
He is also the author-, co-author, or editor of some 50 books. Among the most widely known and celebrated of living psychologists, he has won far too many awards, prizes, grants, fellowships, and honorary degrees to mention here. Gergen was born in Rochester, New York, in The idea behind social constructivism is that for human beings reality is neither given by the physical world nor conjured up by the individual mind, but rather constructed collectively by a given society or culture.
Moreover, he rejects the ideal of rationality usually associated with the social sciences, pointing out that such ideals themselves derive from particular historically and culturally bound structures. Gergen has published more than peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters, as well as popular articles, op-eds pieces, and the like. He is also the author, co-author, or editor of almost 40 books.
He has received numerous honorary degrees and has occupied visiting professorships at a multitude of universities all around the world. Gilbert was born in Gilbert works at the intersection of social psychology and cognitive psychology, with a focus on the way in which cognitive biases regarding the projected impact of individual choices on happiness affective forecasting may have wide-ranging societal and political implications. Simply put, affective forecasting is the calculation we all make all the time, consciously or subconsciously, when faced with any decision—-generally speaking, we choose the option or the course of action that we believe will lead to the greatest increase in our overall happiness.
The problem is that we are not very good at affective forecasting, which is beset by the kind of cognitive fallacies and illusions studied by several other psychologists on this list Dan Ariely, Daniel Kahneman. For example, most subjects exaggerate the satisfaction they believe they will derive from possessing objects in comparison with having experiences vacations, entertainment and cultivating social ties with family and friends.
He therefore urges us to redirect our energies towards ordinary, everyday experiences with family and friends, if we would be happy. It was there that she worked closely with developmental psychologists Erik Erikson and Lawrence Kohlberg. Gilligan felt that girls and women attain moral maturity by a different path; more importantly, she argued that moral decision-making by women in general takes place in a different voice than that by men.
In developing her ideas, she came to characterize male morality as primarily rule-based and focused on the individual as the primary bearer of rights and duties and as the locus of judgments of moral desert; whereas women, she held, reason morally from a care perspective that is primarily concerned with empathy and compassion, and focused on needs, relationships, and group interests.
From her right flank, as it were, some critics have claimed that her work lacks sufficient empirical support; while from her left flank, she has been charged with essentialism and giving aid and comfort to the patriarchy. Gilligan is the author or co-author or some peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters, and is the author, co-author, or editor of nine academic books, as well as a novel.
She is the recipient of numerous awards, prizes, and honorary degrees. Goleman was born in Stockton, California, in Later, Goleman worked primarily as a literary journalist and freelance writer. During the early part of his academic career, Goleman arranged for several extended stays in India and Sri Lanka, in pursuit of his interest in Asian traditions of meditation. The result was his first book, originally published in , on the different types of meditative techniques that he found there.
It was to the confluence of these dual streams of ancient meditative practice and modern neuroscience that he owed the breakthrough work that was soon to come. In this book, Goleman studies the emotions from biological, evolutionary, psychological, philosophical, and commonsense perspectives, showing the central role they play, not just in our affective life per se , but in all aspects of human cognition and action.
Gopnik was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in She is currently Professor of Psychology at the University of California, Berkeley, with an affiliate appointment in the Philosophy Department. Gopnik has worked at the intersection of developmental psychology and cognitive science. In particular, she noted early in her career that the mathematical models she was attempting to develop to represent the way infants learn to interact successfully with the world around them were formally similar to Bayesian networks, an application of graph theory to the theory of probability that had been independently developed by philosophers of science to try to understand the way science works, especially in the form of non-deductive logical inference induction and inference to the best explanation.
This was a highly significant observation for at least two reasons: first, it provided a kind of empirical confirmation that Bayesian networks really do capture something important about scientific reasoning; and, second, it powerfully demonstrated that babies are already capable of employing far more sophisticated methods of discovery than one might have imagined absent such evidence. The wide-ranging book in which Gopnik reported these and many other findings to a popular audience, The Philosophical Baby , was a runaway bestseller.
Gopnik is the author or co-author of more than peer-reviewed journal articles or book chapters, as well as the author, co-author, or editor of six books. The recipient of numerous awards, grants, fellowships, lectureships, and honorary degrees, in Gopnik was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Haidt was born in New York City in One of his papers, The Emotional Dog and Its Rational Tail  —which argues that we mostly make moral judgments on an intuitive basis, reserving moral reasoning for the ex post facto justification of decisions already made—-has been cited more than times.
Haidt first became widely known for his work in the field of positive psychology happiness research , especially for his book, The Happiness Hypothesis. In this book, he draws heavily on work in cultural anthropology which shows that certain character traits are recognized as embodying wisdom the world over. Next, Haidt turned his attention to developing an empirically based typology of the moral emotions moral foundations theory. His five categories are: caring; fairness; group loyalty; respect for authority; and purity sanctity.
In his most recent book, The Righteous Mind , Haidt argues that those on the political left tend to honor only the first two of these moral principles, while those on the political right honor all five of them. He further argues that the only way to narrow the divide between left and right is for those on both sides to be more conscious of the moral categories the other side is operating with.
Very recently, Haidt has taken a lot of heat from the cultural left by suggesting that there needs to be a greater diversity of opinion in American academia. Among other things, he has co-founded the Heterodox Academy to further that end. Haidt is the author or co-author of more than peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters. Kagan was born in Newark, New Jersey, in Kagan began his career working on longitudinal studies designed to reveal whether early childhood experiences have lasting effects on the development of personality.
He found that character traits are relatively buffered from any lasting effects of early traumatic experiences, and indeed are quite stable across the entire life cycle. Next, Kagan turned his attention to temperament—-relatively stable personality types. He defined two such basic temperaments: inhibited shy, timid, socially withdrawn and uninhibited bold and socially outgoing.
These analyses have been widely influential, both within the profession and among laymen; however, Kagan stressed that such knowledge is of only limited therapeutic usefulness, given that temperament arises out of a complex interaction between genes and environment, both of which are beyond our effective control. In recent years, Kagan has turned his attention to a series of problems he finds with the psychological profession itself, including: disregarding the difference in settings in which experimental studies are conducted; basing theories and practices on single measures, rather than complex, multi-dimensional measurements; defining mental illnesses on the basis of symptoms without regard for etiology; and treating disorders with drugs that are non-specific for the disorder.
In his most recent work, Kagan has written several books for a popular audience with the aim of pushing back against the tidal wave of materialist reductionism the idea that the mind is nothing but the brain in psychology and the wider culture. Kagan is the author or co-author of some peer-reviewed journal articles and books chapters, as well as the author, co-author, or editor of more than 30 books. However, he was raised in Paris, where his parents had emigrated from Lithuania.
After spending the war years in hiding in Nazi-occupied France, the family emigrated to Israel permanently in Kahneman is chiefly known for founding together with his long-time collaborator, Amos Tversky, who died in the academic discipline now known as behavioral economics. Traditional economic theory had always assumed that human beings are rational actors, which means they can generally be relied upon to act in ways they perceive as furthering their own best interests. This idea was called rational choice theory or expected utility theory. Kahneman and Tversky felt that rational choice theory was unrealistic, and they set out to develop more empirically adequate models by making the more realistic assumption of bounded rationality.
Bounded rationality is the idea that, not only are human actors constrained by emotional factors such as irrational aversions and prejudices, they are simply not very good at reasoning correctly about certain kinds of situations especially ones involving probabilities. Kahneman and Tversky made a special study of the irrational bias they called loss aversion —-the common feeling that it is better to avoid losing something than it is to gain the same thing.
According to this theory, the fast system has been hard-wired in us by evolution to enable us to react quickly to stressful situations based on rough-and-ready, heuristic behavioral propensities. The slow system, on the other hand, allows us to reflect upon our experience in a more relaxed and thoughtful way. Kahneman has authored or co-authored some peer-reviewed journal article and book chapters, and is the author, co-author, or editor of seven books.
Kurzban was born in Poughkeepsie, New York, in He is currently Professor of Psychology at the University of Pennsylvania. As a student of Cosmides, Kurzban belongs to the second generation of evolutionary psychologists on evolutionary psychology, see the entry for David M. In a nutshell, he attempts to identify the selective advantage of particular human social behavioral traits in the context of our environment of evolutionary adaptedness EEA. To cite one well-known example from his work, Kurzban has argued that human beings undoubtedly possess an innate tendency to notice facial and other morphological features of people different from themselves, due to the social context of small-scale hunter-gatherer bands within which hominization occurred.
However, while to our modern eyes this history may appear unfortunate, giving rise to racism, the tendency itself is not really linked to race as such which is in any case a modern social construct. Kurzban has applied similar reasoning to other phenomena such as cooperation, morality, and mate choice drawing out implications for modern speed dating! Most recently, he has been a key player in the debate over the modularity of brain functions, a crucial assumption underlying evolutionary psychology.
He also serves as Editor-in-Chief of Evolution and Human Behavior , and is the author or co-author of around peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters, as well as the author, co-author, or editor of seven books. Lewis was born in France in He is currently Professor of Psychology at the University of Sussex. The focus of his doctoral work was on the treatment of phobias and general anxiety states.
Lewis originally intended to become a doctor, but never received his medical degree. During his time in medical school, he earned his living by his pen he published his first novel at the age of 16! After leaving medical school, Lewis worked full-time for the next 10 years as a freelance journalist, photographer, and writer. During this period, he also worked in broadcast journalism, mainly as a presenter for the BBC on the radio and television.
It was only after these experiences that he decided to pursue his higher education in psychology, as already outlined above. After graduation, Lewis taught for a while, before qualifying as a Chartered Psychologist and setting up in private practice, where, building upon his graduate school studies, he specialized in treating phobias and anxiety. During this time, he pioneered a new type of therapy called neurofeedback, whereby patients monitor their own brain states in real time in response to various positive and negative stimuli, eventually learning to improve control over their emotions.
Lewis also conducted research into the interaction between breathing and emotion, which resulted in a new form of breath-control therapy Bo-tau for controlling anxiety, phobic responses, and panic attacks. Moreover, he has used his insights into the way the mind and body work together to develop training programs in other fields of endeavor, such as sports and business.
In addition, he is considered to be the father of neuromarketing, a discipline which uses fMRI and other technology to study how prospective consumers respond to advertisements and other marketing stimuli. The author or co-author of more than 30 books, many of them bestsellers, Lewis is in high demand as a public speaker. He is also Director of Research at Mindlab International , an internationally recognized neuromarketing firm. Linehan was born in Tulsa, Oklahoma, in Patients suffering from BPD present with extremely volatile emotions and disturbed thinking, without crossing the line into full-blown schizophrenia—-hence the notion that they occupy a borderline between neurosis and psychosis.
Co-morbidities of BPD include clinical depression, bipolar disorder, self-harm, substance abuse, and suicidal ideation. Linehan has revealed that she herself was extremely troubled as an adolescent in retrospect, she believes she suffered from BPD and spent two years in a mental hospital, submitting to the relatively crude treatments then available.
This experience lay at the root of her determination to study her own condition scientifically. As she put it many years later:. Linehan was initially drawn to cognitive-behavioral therapy CBT , with its emphasis on helping patients to re-frame their conflicts in a more realistic way to enable them to gain sufficient detachment to bring their emotions under better voluntary control on CBT, see the entry for Aaron T.
Beck, above. Soon, however, she felt that another component was needed—-religious faith. Linehan has written that her Catholic faith played an important role in her own eventual recovery. As an evidence-based therapy, DBT is considered by many experts to be the most effective treatment available for BPD and allied illnesses.
Linehan is the author or co-author of around peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters, and is the author or co-author of seven books and manuals, several of which have been translated into many foreign languages. Beginning in the s, she conducted a series of experiments designed to reveal the stability of memory of recent events in the light of contradictory information given to the subject after the fact.
Her conclusions showed that it is easy to convince people that their memories are incorrect, and even to cause them to change what they claim to remember—-a phenomenon she dubbed the misinformation effect. Generalizing from such laboratory studies, Loftus concluded that human memories are constantly being reconstructed, and hence are far more malleable and open to suggestion than previously thought. Loftus and her work rocketed to fame in the early s when she gave expert testimony in a series of court cases involving the phenomenon of so-called repressed memory.
At that time, the idea that the memory of traumatic events might be repressed and only recalled years or even decades later under questioning by experts had taken hold of the public imagination. Prominent cases involved purported mass child molestation and Satanic rituals. Loftus is the author or co-author of close to peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters, as well as the author, co-author, or editor more than 20 books. Meltzoff was born in Meltzoff began his career by studying the ability of very young infants to imitate adult facial expressions and manual gestures, culminating in a landmark paper published in ,  in which Meltzoff and co-author M.
Keith Moore established conclusively that infants as young as two weeks old are capable of reliably imitating adult expressions and gestures—-one of the first results to demonstrate that neonates possess far more sophisticated cognitive abilities than anyone had hitherto suspected. Subsequent studies demonstrated similar abilities in newborns within the first hour after birth. These findings were revolutionary in several respects, not least in light of their cross-modal character vision and proprioception , which implied the existence of a highly developed innate cognitive faculty in newborns.
As a result of his decades of research on infants, Meltzoff stresses the importance of infant imitation for laying the proper foundations for the normal development of our very humanity:. Meltzoff is the author or co-author of more than peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters, and has co-authored or edited four books, including three in collaboration with Alison Gopnik see above. The recipient of many awards, grants, and honorary degrees, Meltzoff sits on the editorial board of eight academic journals and the advisory board or board of trustees of four foundations.
Miller was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, in His dissertation, written under the supervision of Roger N. Miller has done research in a number of different areas of psychology, above all, in evolutionary psychology, and especially in two sub-fields within that discipline: human sexual selection and the new field of evolutionary consumer psychology. On evolutionary psychology in general, see the discussion under the entry for David M. Sexual selection, in a nutshell, is the idea that the sexes may sometimes evolve independently of each other through adaptations geared specifically to the mating preferences of the opposite sex.
Miller is especially known for his work on updating famed statistician Ronald A. The extravagant antlers of the extinct Irish elk are often cited as a case in point. Miller has argued that the human brain, whose rapid size increase he believes was due to intense sexual selection pressure, is a Fisherian runaway, and that therefore we should be very careful about the effects of our intelligence on our long-term survival.
Miller has also been at the forefront of developing the new field of evolutionary consumer psychology, which basically uses the logic of sexual selection to explain many features of modern consumer society, by linking them with high social status in males as a marker of reproductive success. All of this work is highly controversial, both inside the academy and out. Note : Walter Mischel passed on September 12, Mischel was born in Vienna, Austria, in His family fled to the US after the Anschluss in , settling in Brooklyn.
Mischel is most closely associated with the claim, originally made in his book Personality and Assessment , that personality traits are highly context-dependent, and that the notion there is a stable personality which manifests uniformly over time and across varied social contexts, as previously believed, is a myth. He did not deny the reality of a fundamental underlying personality altogether, but claimed that its expression is highly complex, and best characterized in terms of contextualized, conditional if-then patterns of behavior.