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G: cross-section of disc of a brooding female with developed juveniles J , about to be expelled through the bursal slit BS. H: mature embryo present in female bursa, probably almost ready to hatch; terminal plate TP. As the waters from the eastern close to the surface [47]. They may thus display a lower Mediterranean basin are known to be very oligotrophic recruitment compared to brooded individuals that are less [46], UV rays penetrate deeper into the water column. Biologies — likely habit, once released, of hiding under rocks, as do study of the gonad condition should be performed.

Fenaux adults. UV also certainly affects adults [45], but echino- [29], however, observed that there was only one event of derms can develop avoidance mechanisms [48], particu- reproduction in the year, at least in the lineage L1. In larly some brittle stars that live under rocks during the day addition, the genetic data allow us to safely state that there and are active during the night [49].

Further possible that L1 is not less abundant in the eastern basin study is required to test whether the reproductive times and that this observation is only a sampling artefact, L1 can change and overlap in other places of the Mediterra- being as abundant but living deeper. In this case, the fact nean, due to differing environmental conditions. To fully resolve the speciation events in O. Reproduction strategies and reproductive isolation whether the lineages L2, L4, L5 and L6 belong to a single between L1 and L3 broadcasting species including L1, or a single brooding species including L3, or if each additional lineage The reproduction of O.

Only after that, described as occurring once a year via lecithotrophic the taxonomy should be revised by properly describing one larvae in early July [28]. The specimens of this study were or several new biological species. We suggest treating the from eight locations at the French Mediterranean coast groups of broadcasting and brooding lineages as a separate belonged to L1 unpublished data. Here, we describe the morphospecies or a morphologically similar species reproduction of lineage L3 that occurred most likely at the complex. The juveniles are then brooded for several weeks, unless a particular stress makes the mother expel the juveniles [30].

We did not observe Acknowledgments fertilization events, but hypothesize that internal fertiliza- tion may occur by intake of sperm into the female bursae, We are very grateful to Christos Arvanitidis, without as suggested by Byrne [50] and Byrne et al. We would Ophionereis olivacea H. Clark, and Ophiopeza like to thank him for his availability and his constant spinosa Ljungman, The development of juveniles willingness to help.

Many thanks to Thanos Dailianis, Elena was apparently direct, but we cannot rule out the presence Sarropoulou, and Magdalini Christodoulou for help during of an extremely transient brooded larval stage, which was the sampling sessions. Thank you also to Christian not observed. Indeed, brooded vitellaria larvae were Marschal and Chantal Bezac for help with the light and observed in ophiodermatid brittle stars [51]. Finally, we reproductive strategies, L1 and L3 may display pre-zygotic would like to thank one anonymous reviewer for useful isolation as fertilization in L3 individuals occurred before comments to improve the manuscript.

Although References reproduction and gonad development should be followed over a year for both lineages, and at different geographic [1] D. Bickford, D. Lohman, N. Sodhi, P. Ng, R. Meier, K. Winker, et al. Indeed, they [2] N. Knowlton, Sibling Species in the Sea, Annu. Knowlton, Molecular genetic analyses of species boundaries in the haplotype diversities and different patterns of polymorph- sea, Hydrobiologia 73— The latter was polymorphic for [4] R. Ward, B. Holmes, T. Hoareau, E. Boissin, G. Paulay, J. Bruggemann, The Southwestern which 11 were private alleles, whereas i51 was mono- Indian Ocean as a potential marine evolutionary hotspot: perspectives morphic for the L3 brooding lineage, indicating a loss of from comparative phylogeography of reef brittle-stars, J.

In addition, — Torrence, M. Correia, E. Hoffman, Divergent sympatric lineages Boissin et al. Naughton, T. Appleton, M. Gardner, Sympatric cryptic species in the crinoid genus Cenolia Echinodermata: Crinoidea: The morphological as well as genetic and reproductive Comasteridae delineated by sequence and microsatellite markers, Mol. Chenuil, J. To ensure that there is no possibility of Echinocardium cordatum is a complex of several sympatric or hybridiz- ing species: a pilot study, in: Echinoderm Research proceedings hybridization between L1 and L3 because of a second of the 6th European Conference on Echinoderm Research, Banyuls-sur- reproductive period at other times of the year, a year-long Mer, 3—7 September , , 15— Biologies — [9] E.

Boissin, A. Foltz, W. Stickle, E. Campagnaro, A. Himel, Mitochondrial [31] E. Boissin, S. Chenuil, Did vicariance and adaptation drive DNA polymorphisms reveal additional genetic heterogeneity within cryptic speciation and evolution of brooding in Ophioderma longicauda the Leptasterias hexactis Echinodermata: Asteroidea species complex, Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea , a common Atlanto-Mediterranean Mar. Hrincevich, D. Gouy, S. Guindon, O. Species Complex, Mol. Building, Mol. Evol 27 — Hart, M. Byrne, S. Johnson, Patiriella pseudoexigua Asteroidea: [34] P.

Librado, J. Rozas, DnaSP v5: a software for comprehensive Asterinidae : a cryptic species complex revealed by molecular and analysis of DNA polymorphism data, Bioinformatics 25 embryological analyses, J. Hart, C. Keever, A. Dartnall, M. Byrne, Morphological and [35] A. Chenuil, T. Egea, G. Penant, C. Rocher, D. Aurelle, et al. Byrne, M. Hart, A. Shop online now! Cake works with every business. No matter if you are cooker, blogger, designer or an astronaut - this wordpress theme is for everyone! As we head into a world where unique designs, vibrant colors, and bright LED's are the norm, let Graffiti Signs be your partner in signs.

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The Canadian Archivist, Douglas Bremner, in his report for , page XXI, has demonstrated that there was not the slightest foundation for the tradition that the old locks, at Cascades Rapids, were constructed by the French ; they were built by the British Government from to Recently, at the last exhibition of the Numismatic Society of Montreal, September, , it was discovered that the so- called portrait in oils of Father Charlevoix, which from time immemorial, had been in possession of the Caughnawaga Mis- sion, was in fact that of Father Le Jeune.

The error was champlain's fur post. F raser invites the public to visit the " Fraser Homestead Farm, on which the old home of Robert de La Salle still stands and may be seen. Fraser veered round, writing in the Magazine of American History, that the old ruins on his property were those "which have been often designated as those of de La Salle's home. No mention is made "of the grand old chimney of Champlain's fur post of 5" in the American Magazine. Finally, in a letter on the 15th August, , addressed to the Montreal Witness, he seriously lays down that when the Cuille- riers built their stone house after the year 1 , they preserved the old chimney of Champlain's wooden dwelling.

These stories appeared to me in the light of fairy tales, even while I felt flattered to find, in the article in the Magazine of American History, as well as in the letter to the Witness, a great deal of my Vieux Lachine condensed. I also came across de La Salle's autograph and engravings which I had published in my pam- phlet. The copies are as striking as the originals. The most 1 Vol. Fraser gravely imparts to the reader his marvellous discovery.

Until then, he had maintained, always in accordance with the legend of which he was the author and trumpeter, that the old stone house on his property was the manor house of de La Salle. His latest historical revelation would convey the idea that the ruins are those of the Cuillerier post, but that the chimney is that of a wooden house, built by Champlain in for his trade with the Indians.

The house itself disappeared in the time of the Cuilleriers, who replaced it, about 1 7 1 3, by a stone structure, religiously preserving, however, the old chimney, according to Mr. Hence Mr. Fraser's heading, " the grand old chimney of Champlain's fur post of 5, at Lachine," coupling with it an invitation to all patriots to come and venerate this sacred relic of the colony's earliest days. Yet, what proof sufficient to convince the most credulous can be adduced?

Can any one conceive why the Cuilleriers, practical merchants and men of means, would have preserved the chimney of a wooden house, or rather a shanty or log cabin, of more than a hundred years old, when in the act of erecting a fine large stone dwelling? Surely this legend has less likelihood than the previous one. True it is that Champlain traded at Lachine with the Indians, not however, in the forest, on Mr.

John Fraser's property, but rather on the vast prairie a few arpents lower down, by the Rapids, about the spot where flows to-day the Montreal Aqueduct, and which was afterwards turned by de La Salle into a common. The site is well known, having served as a common till Under the shelter of their tents, and far from the ambushes ever laid by the Indians under cover of the forest, our ancestors were enabled at such a spot to carry on trade with security.

Why should they venture into the woods, when they had so easy a way of evading all danger. Fraser refers to the Cuillerier family papers. If he has read them, it is only due to the public that they should be made known, else we cannot be expected to swallow his story. I have champlain's fur post. Fraser's theory.

It is even possible that he was one of de La Salle's settlers. No reference is made to any building, not even to a cabin or shanty.

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Fraser goes on to say that the immediate vicinity of the Common creates a presumption that de La Salle had his dwelling on the grant to Brillon, oblivious of the fact that the Common was not established for the personal advantage of de La Salle, but solely for the settlers from no. Kerr, to No. The Common, 15 arpents front by 16, fine prairie land, Nos. In , it was divided up amongst their successors, which explains why the Common is still green in the memory of the inhabitants of the shore.

It is not impossible, moreover, to determine the precise spot where Champlain carried on his trade with the Indians. Louis, "at the head of the Rapids" as Mr. Louis itself, that is on the big prairie by the riverside. All notarial deeds, subsequent to , which contain a description of lands situated above the Rapids, like the Fraser property, state that they are situated. It was there, at Verdun, six miles from Ville- marie, that in , at the time of the memorable massacre of Lachine, Mr.

Thus, the census of 1 68 1 fails to mention Lachine, but its population is easily traced midst that of Verdun. This prairie also proved a place of refuge to several Lachine families after the massacre. Louis, carrying on trade there, as at Three Rivers, without any fixed establishment.

As already stated, as early as 1, Champlain contemplated locating an establishment on a spot on Montreal Island which he named Place Royale, and which became later on the site of Fort Villemarie. He felled trees in great number, ' marked out gardens, and commenced the erection of buildings. These, 1 1 Faillon, ; Voyages de Champlain, , 9. Louis, with its grand old chimney, its apple and pear orchards, 11 planted on it by the people of Champlain post," to quote Mr.

Fraser, only to think that all this should have been passed over in silence! The absence of any permanent establishment at Lachine, before de La Salle, is of such undoubted truth, that, in , the Company of New- France, when granting to the Seminary a confirmation of their seigniory over the island, reserved for itself the head of the island of Montreal from the Rapids of Sault St. Louis, in order, says Faillon "to establish a trading post, if necessary. Had such a post already existed, as Mr. Fraser contends, the Com- pany would not have failed to reserve it for themselves.

Until the year , the colony of Lachine and of St. Sulpice frequently descended the river on Sundays, in the summer time, and held service likely in de La Salle's house, in , or in that of his immediate purchaser, Jean Milot, sometimes in that of his farmer, Jean Fourni er, who dwelt in the neighbor- hood on the property next but one to de La Salle. The missionaries, previous thereto, had rendered only transient visits. Sulpice, than they considered them- l l Faillon, In this way priests were at first sent to la Chine and Pointe-aux-Trembles, but only on a passing" mission and on given days, whence the provision in the ordinances of the judge of Villemarie : These presents shall be read and posted at la Chine and Pointe-aux-Trembles after the first masses to be celebrated there.

Sieur Guyotte, after a three years tenure of office in the parish, was obliged to cross over to France. Dollier, and was approved by the Bishop. After two years service, Mr. Dollier recalled him to succeed Mr. Pierre Remy, priest of the Seminary, replaced Mr. Remy says : "On the 10th November, , his Lordship the Bishop. Remy also states that all the marriages, baptisms, and deaths, which took place at Lachine before the 12th April, , were recorded in the registers of Villemarie " by the missionaries in charge of the mission of Lachine. Remy has not transmitted the names of the temporary missionaries, who visited Lachine from about to A sad accident, related by Faillon, hastened the construction of the first church of Lachine.

On a Sunday in May, , the canoe which conveyed the missionary, Mr. Le Bailly, capsized. Le Bailly succeeded in escaping by swimming, but the canoeman, George Allain, living in the lower part of Lachine, was drowned.

This accident induced the Seminary to build a chapel at Lachine itself. Guyotte, a priest of the Seminary, was placed in charge of this work. This chapel was built by Pierre Gaudin dit Chatillon, farmer and carpenter, who had his farm near the Rapids. The poverty of this parish, as yet in its infancy, is strikingly evidenced in the chapel, which was made up of piece upon piece, 1 1 Jug. Yet the parish had been helped by the private gift of a parishioner called Jean Chevalier.

For lack of funds, all that could be accomplished was the completion of the old chapel with a shingle roofing and a stone foundation. A tambour or wooden porch and a small sacristy were added the same year. For several years, no election of churchwardens was held, while a goodly number of parishioners had left for Ville- marie or Verdun, or gone off to the war. Finally, on the 1 ith April, 1 , a deed of lease of a pew, states "that it is to be expected that a new church will be built in a few years.

It measured sixty feet in length by thirty in width. It was used as a parish church until the 26th November, L'Union St.

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The foundations of the present Roman Catholic church were laid in the new village of Lachine in the autumn of , and the sacristy completed for the celebration of mass. During a period of two years, from to , service On Sunday was held in the old church, and during the week in the new sacristy. The last mass was celebrated in the old church on the 26th November, , after which the ornaments, etc.

It was blessed on the 2nd December, , Vicar General Truteau officiating. On the 3rd December, , mass was celebrated for the first time by the Reverend N. The interior was finished in the autumn of 1 The church was then consecrated by Bishop Bourget. Its measurement is feet by 56 on the outside line of the walls. The cost including the sacristy, presbytery, altars, statues, way of the cross, chandeliers, etc. The land upon which the church is situated, was given by the late Louis Boyer, and measures some 4 arpents. It measures 56 feet by 42, with a kitchen 24 by The novitiate was inaugurated on the 24th May, The old church was demolished in , when the Oblat Fathers erected their present spacious Novitiate, feet in length.

The novitiate chapel stands upon the site of the old church. Twenty-five burials, all in the chapel, are registered from to i The new cemetery was blessed on the 1st November, Originally of an area of but a quarter of an arpent, it was enlarged in It was abandoned in , a new cemetery being opened near the new church, which explains why the old and new cemeteries are mentioned in several places in the registers. From to , Lachine's dead were buried in the ground of the old church, either within the enclosure of the old chapel, or that of the first stone church or the cemeteries, where a large number of bodies still remain.

In April and May, , some twenty bodies only were transferred to the new cemetery, in rear of the present church. But where were the dead interred from about to ? The MM. Dawes, proprietors of lot cadastral number at Lachine, the old concession of Claude Garigue, situated a few arpents below Port Rolland, have perhaps thrown some light upon the matter.

They state that, in laying the foundations of the oldest of their beer vaults, they had to demolish an ancient stone ruin, of some 1 2 x 15 feet, which had apparently been a chapel. They further found a large number of human bones strewn all around, which led them to believe, reviving an old tradition, that the spot had at one time been the seat of a mission and cemetery. Owing to variance in details, both may well be consulted. Remy left behind him, at Lachine, a copy of the duplicate which was deposited in Court from to The terrier states that Garigue's property was bought "by the Sisters Religieuses of Montreal.

As to where these bones came from, there is a total want of information. Still I am inclined to believe them to have been the remains of the dead of Lachine previous to People could not always afford to send their dead to Villemarie, and besides the registers of the latter barely mention three or four deaths at Lachine during all that period of ten years.

Where then were they buried, if not upon Garigue's property, near Fort Rolland, which was built about ? The supposed chapel, so discovered, might very well have been a mortuary chamber. This obscure point, which has yet to be cleared up, is worthy of research. This is borne out by a location ticket annexed to Jacques Morin's deed of grant, deposited in Bourgine's greffe, which reads : " Seeing that Jacques Morin informs me that he has lost the ticket of his concession, which I gave him by order of Mr.

Dollier, three years ago next autumn, and that he requests me to give him another, wherewith to draw up the contract, I have accordingly granted him the present ticket of four arpents frontage by twenty in depth, subject to the ordinary charges and conditions. Whereupon the churchwardens decided to collect the revenues of the parish in order to provide a lodging for their parish priest. Another meeting of the church- wardens. Remy, who had private means of his own, to advance the necessary funds in view of their great poverty.

On the 17th February, , he was sergeant in the garrison at Montreal. Register of Lachine. Those of the ensuing years. I find a memorandum of Mr. This book generally contains the minutes of the deliberations of the churchwardens on parish matters. The register of the Fabrique contains several entries in his handwriting with reference to his impending departure.

On the 10th June, , having celebrated a baptism, which he immediately registered, he adds, apparently with tears in his eyes, "this will probably be the last baptism I shall celebrate in this church, as I am about to retire to the Seminary at Villemarie, being unable alone to take charge of this large parish of the Holy Angels of la Chine, owing to my advanced age and the infirmities from which I suffer.

On the very day following, he records the fact in the register cf the Fabrique in the same pathetic strain, adding to the reasons for his departure the fact that his hands are so unsteady " that they no longer permit him to give communion to this Christian people. Vilermaula, his successor, informs us that Mr. Vilermaula alone signed the registers. However, Mr. Remy reappeared at Lachine on the 17th October, 1 7 1 7. He came to make one last gift to his old parishioners — the cost of building a new shingle roof for the church, until then only covered with planks, on condition that they should contribute the nails and shingles.

The offer was eagerly accepted. Remy died at the Seminary on the 25th February, , at the ripe age of 90 years. He made liberal use of the fortune, ample enough for the times, which he had inherited from his parents in Paris. He erected the stone temple, which has been admired by existing generations, besides a suitable dwelling for the Sisters of the Congregation, whilst he very frequently responded to the individual appeals of his parishioners. Pottier's greffe abounds in obligations or constitutions of rents, consented to by the parish as well as by individuals for moneys he advanced during hard times, especially during the Indian war from to They were gifts purely and simply, as no trace exists of their discharge.

All he claimed from the parish was the perpetual celebration of six requiem masses annually for the repose of his own soul, and the souls of his father, Michel Remy, King's Counsellor, paymaster of the Gendarmerie in France, of his I Register of Lachine, 13th October, Devoted, generous and charitable as he was, with a long life of pious works, Mr. Remy did not fail to realise what he had done. On the 13th July, , on the eve of his intended de- parture from Lachine, he enumerates in the register of the Fabrique a long list of ornaments and of objects bequeathed to the church, "that posterity may know the little good I have done for this church, and that the parishioners may be incited to pray for the repose of my soul, besides being an example to my successors to accomplish as much good as they can, within their means, for the Fabrique of this poor parish.

Up to and previous to that time, by , these zealous ladies had been in the habit of visiting Lachine on short missions to prepare the children for their first communion. But the possession obtained in of an habitation, humble and unfinished as it were, induced them to open a permanent establishment where they took in orphans, outside pupils and even boarders.

It seems that Sister Bour- geois repaired to Lachine in person, being the first to assume a teacher's duties. The venerable foundress left as her successor, Catherine Sommillard, her niece, and one of the most zealous members of the Sisterhood. At this critical epoch, the missionary Sisters, whose establishment was fortunately within the fort's 1 Register of the Fabrique, and Upon learning afterwards the sad plight of the country and the horrible massacres committed, she was fain to send them back to their parents or to their guardians.

Remy did not forsake what few of his parishioners escaped the massacre, but hastened as soon as possible to recall the Sisters of the Congregation. They returned in at the latest, and although until then, he had given them part of their livelihood and was ever a father to them, still it appears they underwent more than one hardship at the time. Owing to the general state of misery prevailing throughout the country, Mr. Remy had to lend a helping hand to almost all the inhabitants of the parish. In , Sister Marie-Anne Laurent, in charge of the mission, erected a shed within the fort, for the storage of grain, and the provisions necessary for the support of the small community.

But the want of sufficient land, and the danger of going outside the fort, where the Iroquois often laid in ambush, besides the lack of lodging capacity for the boarders and orphans, compelled them to leave Lachine about October, 1 They proceeded to Montreal, where they remained six- teen months. Remy called a meeting of the parishioners to take into consideration the means of recalling the Sisters of the Congregation. So strenuously did he urge their return, setting forth his reasons in the minute of the meet- ing, drawn up by Pottier, that it was decided forthwith to give them a more ample space of land with larger buildings, enclosed by fences, within the precincts of the fort.

Remy, on his part, donated all the buildings which he had already erected on the land, both for his own use and that of their mission. The Sisters consequently returned in February, Remy decided not to postpone any longer the making of his will, and as a mark of the esteem in which he held the Sisters of the Congregation, and as a token of his constant affection, he bequeathed them livres in money to induce them, as he says, to build a stone establishment near the new church, and to carry on their mission, besides providing, as far as possible, a retreat amongst them for the young girls and orphans of this parish.

He also gave them one half of his grain, animals, fowls and provisions, as well as books and furniture, expressing the hope that the mission would still be carried on after his death. In , he resigned his office in favor of one of his confreres, Mr. Vilermaula, to whom he had imparted his spirit of devotion towards the Sisters of the Congregation.

Remy made them build, at his own expense, a stone house near the new church, extending his stay in his old parish in order to superintend the work in person. In remodelling his will in 17 14, he gave them the ownership of the house and land adjoining, as contained in the following clause : 'I give and bequeath to the Sisters of the Congregation of Notre Dame of Montreal, established in mission at my old Cure of the Holy Angels of la Chine, one arpent of land, which I purchased from Sieur Milot next to the church, built by me in stone, almost wholly at my own expense.

I give and bequeath to them the said site and large two story stone house, which I built upon it, and where they now live with their boarders. I always promised and I still promise them that, whenever Sieur Milot may be willing to sell me another arpent, they shall have it for an orchard, provided it be next or near to their enclosure. Dominique was at the head of the establishment, which continued, as formerly, to prove a the convent of the congregation.

When, in , the English were marching on Montreal, to complete, by its capture, the conquest of Canada, the two Sisters at the Lachine mission were stricken with alarm, both for themselves and the children under their care. Their fears were not unfounded, for General Amherst bivouacked at Lachine with his troops. At such a critical moment, Mr.

Brassier, a priest of St. The latter granted him a most gracious reception, offering at the same time his services. Delighted with so unexpected a turn of events, Mr. You may count upon it, said the General, and reassure the Nuns upon that score. Whereupon he ordered two English soldiers to mount guard night and day at their threshold, as a protection against insult and to prevent soldiers or Indians from entering. This severe step produced the full effect intended by General Amherst. Another Sister of the same name, Catherine d'Aillebout, dite de la Visitation, but with whom she must not be confounded, took the vows four years later, in The population of the parish at the end of the last century having decreased instead of increasing, the Sisters had not enough scope for the display of their zeal for the children's welfare, and in , the establishment was transferred to Pointe Claire, where no mission had until then been established.

AN NES. After the departure of the Ladies of the Congregation, Lachine remained without a convent till the arrival of the Ladies of St. The Community was transferred in to St.


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Jacques de L'Achigan, where, under the direction of the Reverend L. The latter was opened in the Governor's house in September, In view of the insufficiency of the premises, the Sisters erected their present establishment, feet by The No- vitiate and the Community were transferred from St. Jacques to Lachine in 1 The large building, now used by the Community and the Novitiate, was built in Governor Simpson's house was pulled down in , and replaced by the present chapel, 1 50 feet by The front of the whole establishment of the Sisters of St.

Annes, including the Community, Chapjl and Pensionnat, measures feet. At the present time, the Seminary or Pensionnat contains more than two hundred boarding pupils, and the Novitiate The institution numbers Nuns. It has 42 missions and teaches 12, children, besides two hospitals at Victoria, B. Amies, who teach Indian children. The ordinary course of education is six years ; but the higher course for those, who want to receive the diploma of the establishment, lasts two years longer.

Both languages, French and English, prevail in the studies. She is now on a visit to her Communities in British Columbia and Alaska. Sulpice had confined their labors to the education of French children, but that they then decided, in accordance with the wish of Mr. Talon and of Mgr. His chief aim was to look after the captive Indian children, and the first to come under his care belonged to the Algonquin tribe.

Sulpice started a new work in connection with the education of the Indian children, up to that time kept in the Seminary at Villemarie. They believed that their training for every day life would be better accomplished by residence in the country, and their withdrawal from the possible dissipation of town life.

They accordingly started an establish 1 3 Faillon, Lawrence, where they cleared land and erected buildings. The house was called La Presentation after the chapel, which had been dedicated to the Presentation of Mary in the Temple. These islands, three in number, lay between la Chine and Cape St. These islands afforded great advantages for the education of the Indian children, in view of their proximity to Gentilly ; but seeing that Mr. It probably consisted of the land given in exchange by the Seminary.

It has since became the property of Placide Allard and Clovis de Bellefeuille. In the same deed before Basset, on the 24th January, , 1 Savage's Point to-day. The livre -terrier does not mention the date of the establish- ment at Gentilly. It was probably commenced about , at the same time as de La Salle founded the village of Lachine. Sulpice had commenced to celebrate mass there.

Like all other establishments of a similar nature, it was built on the model of a fort, with staked fence, the whole in wood. Transfer is also made of the islands commonly called de Courcelles, opposite said lands, which are made over and given up in the state in which they might be found. The deed is signed "Agathe de St. Perre and " Repentigny. What is the meaning of the stone house, built previous to at "Grand' Anse," a locality which to-day forms part of Pointe Claire?

There is no trace of any land having been granted at this 1 Her failicr signed ". The terrier points out, as the oldest, the grants made in and Such a discovery called for a careful examination of Bas- set's manuscript, which I perused repeatedly. The words "Grand' Anse" are clearly legible and cannot be taken for anything else. Evidently, it was not the Grand'Anse of Pointe Claire. I, there- fore, went over the whole deed, some twelve folio pages, dis- covering further on that Melle.

The perusal of these deeds show that her father was Jean de Saint-Perre, a royal notary of Villemarie. The latter, according to Faillon' 1 ' and Mgr. Tanguay,' 2 ' was killed in by the Iroquois, while in the act of roofing his house at Pointe St. Charles, leaving two children, a son, who died in infancy, and a daughter, Agathe, wedded to Pierre Le Gardeur, Sieur de Repentigny. The latter, when she became of age, claimed her rights. In this way the mystery- is explained.

Charles, near Villemarie, and the property, she gave in exchange, was situated near Fort Villemarie. It is no easy matter to determine the exact site of the mission and fort. The domain, attached to the fort, consisted of twenty arpents in depth by a frontage of nineteen on the river, and besides the house, barn and outhouses, except the cellar and chimney, were built ot wood and have long since disappeared.

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Still I believe the spot can be traced. To start with, it may be stated on the authority of a pencilled memorandum, which I found in Mr. Bourgeault's notebook, that "according to old Monette, J. Monette, of Dorval, who died in , at eighty-three years of age , the manor-house of La Presentation was situated on the land, where stands the house of J.

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Bouchard, Sieur Dorval, for 2, livres. One thing certain is that the buildings could not have been on the land east adjoining Morin to-day the Herron property , on account of the marsh land on its frontage, forming an unfavorable site for the construction of a fort. De Cathalogne states that it is 1 Auteur of Murray. Ile is generally known as Bouchard dit Dorval. The road along the shore remained the same until the beginning of the century. The domain was divided up between the creditors and the children. One of the creditors was Charles de Couagne, an important merchant on St.

Paul street, in the City of Montreal. Melo- che did not acquire the islands until later on. They remained in his family until , when they became the property of Sir George Simpson. The sale to Meloche shows thai? It further states that " the said land consists almost entirely of standing- trees and brush, without any building thereon. His name appears in the register of St.

Louis in 1. Pierre Legault dit Deslauriers acquired the property from his father Noel by deed before Hodiesne, on the 6th March, The titles mention that the land consisted of a frontage of five arpents, four rods and nine feet, bounded on the west by Jean Bte. Bouchard dit Dorval, a son of Jean Bte. The two lots west of Mr. Besides, on such a spot, the mission would have been far from the heart of the domain.

The lands of Mr. Brunet and those of Mr. Murray, owing to their height above the river, formed, with their sixty arpents area, one of the finest plateaux in all Lachine, well drained and apt for profitable culti- vation. The fort was therefore situated on the lot accruing to J. Bouchard, jr. Murray, Morris and Torrance. Old stone foundaticns 1 Donation by Pierre Monet and his wife, Marie.

Torrance, and also west of that of Mr. Murray, on a piece of land which, at one time, formed part of Mr. Brunet's farm. On further in- quiry, it turns out that the foundations on Mr. Torrance's land were those of a vegetable stone pit, or root house, of compara- tively modern date. No explanation can be given of the other stone walls found buried on the western line of Mr.

Murray's property, near the highway. This is certainly the spot where the mission of Gentilly was built by the Seminary, about , one of the rooms of which was used as a chapel. The latter, according to Faillon, was dedicated to the mystery of the Presentation of Mary in the Temple, which name was finally given to the whole locality, from the Liesse road to Grand' Anse. A memorandum, without any date or signature, which I found in Mr. Bourgeault's notebook, although not in his hand- writing, states that the de Courcelles Islands were "ranted to Mr.

The memorandum adds that, in , tne Indian institute collapsed, either for want of ressources, or for lack of Indian pupils, and that the de Courcelles Islands were transferred to the Seminary by letters patent of the King of France. On what ground is it stated that the Indian establishment at Gentilly fell through in ? Finally, as already stated, the three islands became the property of the Seminary not in , but in In the event of any Royal intervention, a fact which I am unaware of it must have been exercised in order to confirm a land grant to a corporation in mortmain. The deed of exchange of the 7th September, , between the Seminary and Dlle.

The Seminary therein reserves all the furniture, cattle, grain, fodder and agricultural implements in and upon the said domain. The Lachine registers contain several entries relating to soldiers garrisoned at this fort. The soldiers camped out in tents during the summer, occupying huts during the winter ; reference is made to the latter fact in the deed of exchange of the 7th Sep- tember, This post was built by Francois Le Noir dit Rolland about , at the same time probably that Jean Milot finished the fort at Lachine, and while Jacques Le Ber and Charles Le Moyne were building the stone house and shed, with loopholes, to-day occupied by Edward Wilgress.

This lot, Nos. The following is the chain of title during the last century, viz : in , Estate de Couagne; in , Sieur de Budemond ; in 1 7 1 3, Pierre Mallet; in , J. Magde- laine dit La Douceur; and in , Joseph Ducharme. Dawes and the lawn of Hanna's hotel, and leads to the supposition that Fort Rolland was flanked by three other smaller bastions. The fort was built as a protection for Rolland's trading post. The surname " Rolland " is derived from the first name of his father Rolland Le Noir.

An incident, in connection with Rolland's marriage, is related and is worth mentioning. Intendant Talon had debarred unmarried, men from the privileges of the chase, fishing, trading with the Indians and even from the right of entering the woods. Rolland, a bachelor, was therein" hampered in this line of trade. But, on the 20th December, , he promised to get married in the following year, within three weeks, at the latest, after the arrival of the ships, and even bound himself, in case of default, to give one hundred and fifty livres to the Hospital, and an equal amount to the Villemarie Church.

On these conditions, he was allowed to trade in his store and to collect all moneys due him by the Indians, but he was not allowed to go into the woods. He kept his promise and, on the 2nd January, ,. Among those present at the wedding were : Mr. Perrot, Paul de Maurel and several other noblemen, all of whom signed the marriage register. His daughter was at the Pensionnat of the Villemarie Congregation during the same year.

At the time, he had forty-five arpents of cultivated land. In , Rolland added to his concession two adjoining lands to the west. As early as , he purchased forty arpents en roture of the Fief Bellevue, which he sold, on the 6th June, , to Charles de Couagne for livres. Not satisfied with the trade he was carrying on at his Lachine house, and his branch, at Bout de l'lsle, he scoured the woods, pene- trating as far as the Illinois, trading with the Indians his eau- de-vie and other merchandise.

In the account of the voyage of Count de Frontenac, in , it is stated that the Governor was 1 She signs the first baptismal registei at Lachine in , "Marie Madeleigne Char- bonnier Seigneur," a signature she persisted in until the 6th March, , when she generally signed "Marie Seigneur Charbonnier. In , Francois Le Noir had a celebrated lawsuit, reported in the second volume of Edits et Ordonnances, p.

An entry in Basset, on the 4th July, , contains the compounding of a criminal prosecution, taken against him by Nicolas Moisan. At more than one page, it is stated that Rolland had left for the Council at Quebec "in a cariole " with a man in the winter time, or "in a canoe" with one or two men, when in summer.