For in truth, although imitation bulks so large in Aristotle's definition of poetry, it sinks into insignificance, and even passes out of sight, in the body of his work. Notvrith- Btanding Richter's, notwithstanding Coleridge's adliesion to it, the theory of imitation is now utterly exploded. The Aristotelian theory ruled absolute in literature for two millenniums. No other theory was put forward to take its place, as TheoUicr thc fouiidatiou of critical science, till within wStii. There came a time, how- ever, when the need of a deeper criticism began to be felt.
The old criticism that through the Renaissance traced a descent from Aristotle, dealt chiefly with the forms of art. A new criticism. It is always an idea. As all nature's thousand changes But one changeless God proclaim. So in art's wide kingdom ranges One sole meaning still the same. In the meantimfe it may be enough to point out that whereas innumerable attempts have been made to analyze the grand idea of art which is generally supposed to be the idea of the beautiful, and out of this analysis to trace the laws and the development of arty it cannot be said that in following such a Kne.
It is for this very reason that the theory of the beautiful, as the common theme of art, subsists. If it were less vague, it would be more oppoeed. With all its vagueness, however, two facts may be discovered which are fatal to it as a founda-. Two faitH tion for the science of criticism. The first is the more fatal, namely, that it does not cover the whole ground of art. The worship and manifes- tation of the beautiful is not, for example, the province of comedy, and comedy is as much a part of art as tragedy.
Moreover, on the other hand the second fact I have referred to , is it to be supposed that to display beauty is to produce II work of art? La belle chme qile la philosophie 1 sjivs M. Horace, long ago, in a verse wliich lias become proverbial, expressed the truth about the position of beauty in art.
TiiataiiiM Convinced that the idea of the beautiful is. Music is an art, but in what sense are we to say that its theme is eternal truth, or that Mendels- sohn's concerto in D minor is a reflex of the ab- solute idea? In what sense are the arabesques of the Alhambra eternal truths or reflections of the eternal essence? The idea of the true is not the theme of all art, and it is not peculiar to works of art to take the true for a theme. Still the same objections apply to yet another defini- tion of the artistic theme.
Ideas of power, ideas of truth, ideas of beauty — it will not do to bind art as a whole, or poetry as a part of it, to the. If the unity of the arts does not lie in the possession either of a common method which they pursue, or of a common theme which they set forth, wherein does it consist? Even if poetry and the arts could boast of a common method and a common theme, still every question of method and the choice of tlieme must be subordinate to the end in view.
The end determines the means, and must there- fore be the principal point of inquiry. If, then, we inquire what is the end of poetry and the poeticiil arts, we shall find among critics of all countries and all ages a singular unanimity of opinion — a unanimity which is all the more remarkable, when we discover that, admitting tlie fact with scarcely a dissentient voice, they have never turned it to account — they have.
It is admitted that the im- chapter mediate end of art is to give pleasure. The dreamer and the thinker, the singer and the sayer, at war on many another point, are here at one. Here, however, care must be taken that the some expia- reader is not misled by a word. There is in pleasure so little of conscious thought, and in pain so much, that it is natural for all who pride them- selves on the possession of thought to make light of pleasure. It is possible, however, in magnifying the worth of conscious thought, to underrate the worth of unconscious life.
We cannot say that it is ignorance, because tliat is a pure negation. But there is no objection to our saying — life ignorant of itself, unconscious life, pleasure. I do not give this explanation as sufficient — it is very insufficient — but as indicating a point of view from which it will be seen that the establisliment of pleasure as the end of art may involve larger issues, and convey a larger meaning than is commonly sup- see Chapter poscd.
What that larger meaning is may in due course lie shown. In the ninth chapter of this work I attempt to state it, and stating it to give a remodelled definition of art. In the mean- time, one fiiils to see how, bv anv of the new- fangled expressions of German philosophy, we. But if this be granted, and it is all but univer- sally granted, it entails the inevitable inference that criticism is the science of the laws andTheneoes- conditions under which pleasure is produced.
Criticism, however, is built anywhere but upon the rock. Instead of taking a straight line, like the venerable ass which was praised by the Eleatic philosopher, they went off zigzag, to right, to left, in every One and aii. So they bounced off to the left. So they bounced off to the right.
Why does not the critic take the one plain path before him, proceeding instantly to inquire into the nature of pleasure, its laws, its conditions, its requirements, its causes, its effects, its whole history? Whenever I have insisted with my friends on this point, as to the necessity of recog- nising criticism as the science of pleasure, the invariable rejoinder has been that there is no use in attempting such a science, because the nature of pleasure eludes our scrutiny, and there is no accounting for tastes. But the rejoinder is irre- levant. Chemistry was at one time a diCBcult study, and seemed to be a useless one.
If art be the minister, criticism must be the science of pleasure, is so obvious a truth, that since in the history of literature and art the inference has never been drawn except once in a faint way, to be mentioned by and by , a doubt may arise in some minds as to the extent to which the production of pleasure has been admitted in criticism as the first principle of art.
I proceed, accordingly, to take a rapid survey of the chief schools of criticism that have ruled in the repuUic of letters, with express reference to their opinion of pleasure and the end of art. Speaking ronndly, there are but two "f great systems of criticism. But these divided systems may be subdivided, and perhaps the plainest method of arranging the critical opinions of paist ages is to take them by countries.
It will be convenient to glance in succession at the critical schools of Greece,ltaly, Spain, France, Germany, and England. And from this survey,. In our old Anglo-Saxon poetry, the harp is de- scribed as " the wood of pleasure," and that is the universal conception of art. Homer, Plato, and Aristotle are the leaders of Greek thought, and their word may be taken for what constitutes the Greek idea of the end of poetry. The uppermost thought in Homer's mind, when he speaks of Phemius and Demo- docus, is that their duty is to delight, to charm, to soothe.
When the strain of the bard makes Ulysses weep, it is hushed, because its object is defeak'd, and it is desired that all should rejoice togotlier. Wherever the minstrel is referred to, his chief business is described in the Greek verb to delight. What the great poet of Greece thus indicated, the great philosophers expressed in logical fonn.
That pleasure is the end of poetry, is the pervading idea of Aristotle's treatise on the subject. To Plato's view I have already more than once referred. He excluded the poets from his republic for tin's, as a cliief reason, that poetry has pleasure for its leading aim. In another of his works he defines the pleasure, which poetry aims at, to be that which a man of virtue. The argument is, that because pleasure is a be- coming — that is, a state not of being, but of going to be — it is unbecoming.
He starts with the Cyrenaic definition of pleasure as a state not of being, but of change, and he argues that the gods are unchangeable, therefore not capable of pleasure.
Pleasure which is a becoming, is imbecoming to their nature; and man seeking pleasure seeks that which is unseemly and un- godlike. Think of this argument what we will, the very fact of its being urged against poetry in this way, brings into a very strong light the conviction of Plato as to the meaning of classical art. And what was Plato's, what was Aristotle's view of the object of art, we find consistently maintained in Greek literature while it pre- served any vitality.
Is it a tme or a faJ. But is it tnie? Is the pleasure which it affords, the pleasure of a truth or that of a lie? The question naturally arose from their critical jx int of view, which led them to look for tlie definition of art in its form. They defined art as an imitation, which is hut a nar- rower name for fiction. It will he found, indeed, tliroughout the history of criticism, that so long as it started from the Greek point of view, followed tlu? Greek metliod, and accepted the Greek definition of art, that this question as to the truth of fiction was a constant trouble.
And when th? Greek raised liis doubt as to the truth of art, let it be rememl ered that he had in his mind something very different from what we should now be thinking of were we to question the truthfulness of this or that particular work of art. A work of art may be perfectly true in our sense of the word, that is to say, drawn to. The first suggestion of the Greek doubt, as to Treatment the reahty of the foundation of pleasure in art, question.
It is said that when Thespis came to Athens with his strolling stage, and drew great crowds to his plays, Solon, then an old man, asked him if he was not ashamed to tell so many lies before the people, and striking his staff on the groimd, growled out that if lies are allowed to enter into a nation's pleasures, they will, ere long, enter into its business. Gorgias said that tragedy is a cheat, in which he who does the cheat is more honest than he who does it not, and he who accepts the cheat is wiser than he who refuses it.
Many of the Greeks accepted the cheat so simply that, for example, they accused Euripides of impiety for putting impiety into the mouth of one of his dramatic personages. And not a few of their painters undertook to How the cheat with the utmost frankness. Apelles had to deceive. Zeuxis suffered a grievous disappointment when, having painted. CHAPTER a boy carrying grapes, the birds came to peck at —1 the fruit but were not alarmed at the apparition of the boy. There are other stories of the same kind, as that of the painted curtain, and yet again that of the sculptor Pygmalion, who became enamoured of the feminine statue chiselled by himself.
Life is wanting to enable them to show their fury. I might quote whole pages from Vasari to show how an artist and a critic of the Cinque Cento thought of art. He says tliat one of. He says that the instru- ments, in a picture of St. Cecilia, lie scattered around her, and do not seem to be painted, but to be the real objects. He says of Raphael's pictures generally that they are scarcely to be called pictures, but rather the reality, for the flesh trembles, the breathing is visible, the pulses beat, and life is in its utmost force through all his works. In Italian art also it may be.
Many another picture might be mentioned in which a similar treatment is adopted, and especially by the painters before Raphael, as Dominic Ghirlan- dajo, and men of that stamp. But everybody knows the crowning work of Raphael, and that, therefore, may serve best for an illustration. What are we to make of the two Dominicans? If, instead of the two bald-pated, black-robed monks, the artist had placed on the Mount of Transfiguration a couple of wild bulls feeding or fighting, they would puzzle one less than his two monks..
Why is their monastic garb in- truded among the majestic foldings of celestial.
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And yet Raphael introduces on the scene two modem monks to share the vision! Not only is the Gospel narrative thus violated; there is a still stranger anomaly. The three disciples are lying down, blinded with the light and bewildered in their minds. The Dominicans are kneeling up- right and looking on. Raphael has deliberately introduced into his picture — the spectator. More than one generation has passed away, and there the figures in the picture have remained unchanged. The Italians, when, on the canvas of Ghirlandajo, they looked on the well-known figures of Ginevra di Benci and her maidens, as attendants in an interview between Elizabeth and the Virgin Mary, found themselves projected into the picture and made a part of it.
The most marked characteristic of the Greek drama is the presence of the chorus. The chorus are always present, — watching events, talking to the actors, talking to the audience, talking to themselves, — all through the play, indeed, pour- ing forth a continual stream of musical chatter. And what are the chorus? The only intelligible explanation which has been given is that they represent the spectator. What the Greeks thus did artistically on their stage, we moderns have also sometimes done inartistically and unintentionally, but still to the same effect. We have had the audience seated on the stage, and sometimes, in the most.
Dublin to the Cordelia of Mrs. Woffington, an Irish gentleman who was present actually ad- vanced, put his arm round the lady's waist, and thus held her while she replied to the reproaches of the old king. The stage in the last century was sometimes so beset with the audience, that Juliet has been seen, says Tate Wilkinson, lying all solitary in the tomb of the Capulets with a couple of hundred of the audience about her.
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We should now contemplate such a practice with horror, as utterly destructive of stage illusion; and yet we must remember that it had its illusive aspect also, by confounding the dream that appeared on the stage with the familiar reaUties of life. From all this, however, it follows that if the Greeks made a confusion between fact and fiction, art and nature, they were not peculiar What is in so doing.
What is peculiar to them is this, thVcrieks. It was fairly rea- soned. The Greeks were the first to raise this subject of the truth of art into an important critical question which they transmitted to after times. This is not the place to enter into a dis- chapter cussion whether they were right or wrong, — 1 and whether fiction be or be not falsehood, manner of That discussion will be more fitly handled when "riSiy we come to examine the ethics of art. Plato, as I have already said, exhausted his dialectical skill in showing the untruthfulness of art.
He con- demned it as an imitation at third hand. Plato's statement as to the truth of art is thus grounded on his theory of ideas, and when that theory goes, one would imagine that the statement should go also. It is incredible that mankind should find enduring pleasure in a lie. There cannot. AVe should now express the same thing in the statement that whereas history is fact, poetry is truth.
Aristotle does not set him- self formally to answer Plato, but throughout his writings we find him solving Plato's riddles, imdoing Plato's arguments, and rebutting Plato's objections. Many of his most famous say- ings are got by recoil from Plato. Thus his masterly definition of tragedy, which has never been improved upon, and which generation after generation of critics have been content to repeat like a text of Scripture, is a rebound from Plato.
And the same is to be said very nearly of Aris-. It was reserved for Aristotle to put the defence of art on the right ground — to deny that it is a cheat at all — and to claim for it a truthfulness deeper than that of history. This, then, is one of the earliest lessons which The lesson the student of art has to learn. The first lesson criticism. He rather prided himself on his anatomy of thought and expression, but he hardly ever made a clean dissection. Mark what he says in this case. He says that the true opposite of poetry is not prose, but science.
This is not right. Coleridge has defined science by reference to the external object with which it is engaged; but he has defined poetry by reference to the mental state which it produces. There is no comparison between the two. If he is to run the contrast fairly, he ought to deal with both alike, and to state cither what is the outward object pursued by each, or what is tlie inward state produced by each.
The true whilc that of poctry is pleasure. To say that tlic object of art is pleasure in contrast to know- ledge, is quite different from saying that it is pleasure in contrast to tiiith. By thus getting rid of the contrast between truth and pleasure, which Coleridge has unguardedly allowed, a difficulty. His statement has an air of extra- ordinary precision about it that might wile the imwary into a ditch.
All his precision goes to misrepresent the pure Greek doctrine. From Greece we pass over into Italy, as The Italian the stepping-stone to modern Europe; and itaiudsm. Everybody wiU remember how Horace describes a poem as fashioned for pleasure, and failing thereof, as a thing of nought, that belies itself, like music that jars on the ear, like a scent that is noisome, like Sardinian honey bitter with the taste of poppy.
Next to Scaliger stands another Italian critic, Castelvetro, who wrote a commentary on. He, too, saw in enjoyment the end of poetry, and maintained the doctrine so uncompromisingly, that some of the French critics long afterwards took him to task for it. Tasso was more distinctly a modem, and has left us, with his poems, a number of critical discourses.
In these he states unflinch- ingly that delight is the immediate end of poetry, and the whole of the Italian school of criticism goes with him. The doctrine is firmly stated in Yida's famous poem, whiit is It is less interesting, however, to know that. Here we come tp another great lesson. If the first of all lessons in art is that art is for pleasure, and the second is that this pleasure has nothing to do with falsehood, the third is that art is not to be considered as in any sense opposed to utility. Scaliger describes the Italians of. In the Latin language, indeed, the verb to please or delight signifies at the same time to help or be of use, and the two ideas became inseparable in all criticism traced back to Rome.
Castelvetro leant more to the Greek view, and put all thought of profit as connected with art How tmsu. The strain of criticism thus originated flows through all modern literature that owns to Italian influr ence. In one fonn or another, we come upon it in Spanish, in French, in German writers; and we find it very rife in England during those Elizabethan days when our literature was most open to Italian teaching.
Deep at the root of them lies the conviction which takes possession of every thoughtful mind, tliat nothing in this world exists for itself, can in the long run be an end to itself, can have an ultimate end in its Wherein it owu good plcasurc. In pursuing this line of thought, however, a man soon finds that he is apt to argue in a circle — such a circle as one of our subtlest poets suggests in saying —. And thus the laureate sings —. Again, there is a core of truth in the Horatian How far m maxim that art should be profitable as well as pleasing, since it always holds that wisdom's ways are ways of pleasantness, that enduring pleasure comes only out of healthful action, and that amuse- ment as mere amusement is in its own place good, if it be but innocent.
There is profit in art as there is gain in godliness, and poKcy in an honest life. But we are not to pursue art for profit, nor god- liness for gain, nor honesty because it is poHtic, There are minds, however, so constituted that nothing seems to be profitable to them, except it comes in the form either of knowledge or of.
Divines opposed to dancing, from Saint Ambrose to the Rev. John Northbrooke, have yet had much to say in fiivour of what they call spiritual dancing, such. These are, of course, vanities on which it is needless to comment. Nor need we waste time on those who apply to art the utilitarian test. The inhabitants of Yarmouth in begged that Parliament would grant them the lead and other materials " of that vast and alto- gether useless cathedral in Norwich" towards the building of a workhouse and the repairing of their piers, Thomas Heywood, who has been described as a sort of prose Shakespeare, gave a rather prosaic proof of the utility of the drama from the effect produced by a play acted on the coast of Cornwall.
The Spaniards were landing "at a place called Perin," with intent to take the town, when hearing the drums and trumpets of a battle on the stage, they took fright and fled to their boats. Ruskin has here, in fact, touched on one of the most curious laws of pleasure. It will be found that when we begin to talk of pleasure, at once we fall into seeming inconsistencies and contradictions. It is only by a concession to the exigencies of language that we can speak of pleasure as obtained from any conscious seeking.
Not to forestall what has to be said of pleasure in the proper place, it may be enough here to illustrate the present diffi- culty about it by quoting what Lord Chester- field says of wit. Ruskin says, you will fail of joy. And yet, after his kind, with what may be called an under-conscious- ness, the man of wij intends wit, the man of art intends pleasure, and both attain their ends. Why is dehght expressed except for delight? There is not only no objection to saying that art is the ex- pression of delight, but also the statement of that fact is essential to the true conception of art.
It is, however, an advance upon the Italian doctrine of pleasure, which will more properly be handled in the sequel, when in the course of travel we come to Germany. The spwiJi III. A Spanish Jew of the fifteenth century, even if he were a converted one, is not the sort of person whom one would select as the type of joyousness, and the expounder of the gay art.
He mingles this view, it is true, with some stiff notions, as that the poet who can produce so much pleasure must be high-bom, and must be inspired of God, but his idea throughout is, that the art is for pleasure. Other Spanish critics follow in the same track, as Luzan, who, however, takes most of his ideas on criticism from the Italians. The Spaniards raised another question, which is more purely a critical one. Art is for pleasure, but whose pleasure? Not that this question had been wholly overlooked by the Italians.
On the con- trary, some of the French critics, that in the days of the Fronde and of the Grand Monarch buzzed about the Hotel Rambouillet, were wild and witliering in the sarcasms which they poured on the poor old Italian, Castelvetro, for venturing to assert that poetry is to delight and solace the That art is multitudc. But tlic Spaniards, having a noble i! It will be well worth, as I think, a cup of good wine. They complain that the tales of chivalry, intended to give pleasure, have an evil effect in minis- tering to bad taste.
But the canon, who has no mean opinion of the approbation of the few as opposed to the many, tells us distinctly that the corruption of Spanish art, which, he laments, is not to be attributed to the bad taste of the com- mon people, who delight in the meaner pleasures. Lope de Lope de Vega, however, was still bolder than Cervantes. Tales have the same rules with dramas, the purpose of whose authors is to content and please the public, though the.
He has been well backed, however, both by comic and serious writers. Will you have it that the public are astray, and are not fit to judge of their own pleasure? There is a diflBcult question here involved. It a diflScoit is indeed the first difficult question that meets here in- the critic. Tasso played with it a little. It was left for the French critics to sound the abysses of such an inference, and to turn it to account as a.
Lope de Vega says, Please the multitude even if vou defy the rules. An oppoHite Tlic vicw tlius sct fortli invites misapprehen- wipiKtted sion, but it has not a little to say for itself. If the effect of Milton's plirase were simply to soothe the feelings of the disappointed poets who write what nobody will read, it would be a pity to deprive them of such comfort; but the fact is, that poets of rare ability often in our. Great poetry was ever meant, and to the end of time must be adapted, not to the curious student, but for the multitude who read while they run — for the crowd in the street, for the boards of huge theatres, and for the choirs of vast cathedrals, for an army march- ing tumultuous to the battle, and for an assembled.
It — 1 is intended for a great audience, not for indi- vidual readers. SiSn- " tion of printing have wrought some changes. Few English critics have been more fastidious than Johnson, and yet wliat was his opinion as to the pleasure which Shakespeare created? When his fancy is once on the wing, let him not stop at cor-. Exprcned that all gTcat art is gregarious. The great that all artist IS never as one crying solitary in the. He is surrounded by Paladins, that with him make the age illustrious. He belongs to his time, and his time produces many, who if not great as he, are yet like him.
Nothing is more marked in history than the phenomenon of seasons of excellence and ages of renown. Witness the eras of Pericles, Augustus, the Medici, Elizabeth, and others. What means this clustering, this companionship of art, un-- less that essentially the inspiration which pro- duces it is not individual but general, is common to the country and to the time, is a national possession?
And how again can this be if the pleasure of art is not in the people, and the standard by which it is to be judged is not in their hearts? In one word, the pleasure of art is a popular pleasure. TheFnnch lY. There is another side of the question to which justice must be done before we can have this tlieory of poetic pleasure well balanced.
What the Spanish critics want in tliis respect, the French critics supply. The French, like other scliools of criticism, had their own special. Those who made any doubt about it, as Father Rapin, did so chiefly on the score of religion, which in their eyes made light of all earthly pleasure.
Eapin allows delight to be the end of poetry, but he will not hear of it as the chief end, because by that phrase he xmderstands — the public weal which all human arts ought to look to as their highest work. It is scarcely needful to say that here is but a mistake of terms. Father Rapin is thinking of ultimate ends, whereas those who dwell on pleasure as the chief end of art, have no thought but of its immediate object.
The strongest statement of what that object is, I have already given from one of Molifere's plays. If French critics did not commonly advance the doctrine of pleasure with like fearlessness of logic, still they accepted it Accepu the freely. In the tempest of discussion which rose dwtHM. La Harpe and other critics of his school made it their chief accusation against Shakespeare that he sacrificed to the rabble. Certainly the French poets could not be charged with this fault. They showed so little regard. It has nothing that can stand a comparison with the ballads of Spain, with those of England and Scotland, with the pol- ished strains that are familiar to every Italian beggar, with the folksongs of Germany.
It is in a state of savage revolt against Hugo's re- the ancient priggishness of French criticism that u! For me, he says, I admire all, be it beauty or blur, like a very brute, and it seems to. R me that our age — he ought to have added our nation — needed sueli an example of barbaric enthusiasm and utter childishness. He published the earliest work of systematic criti- cism of the new school, a book called La Poetique, which is very scarce, and which, from a phrase of Bayle's, it would seem that even in his time it was difficult to get.
Scudery's state- ment of the precious doctrine of pleasure will be found in the preface to that grand epic bug — his poem of Alaric. But La Mesnardiere was l cfore him, and stated the case in the more formal manner of a systematic treatise. It has been already intimated that La Mesnardiere is one of those who insist very much on the uses of art, and. He runs foul of Castelvetro for suggest- ing the contrary, and heaps terms of contempt on the rude, the low, the ignorant, the stupid mob — a many-headed monster, whom it is a farce to think of pleasing with the delicacies of art.
No, he says, it is kings, and lords, and fine ladies, and philosophers, and men of learning that the artist is to please. Who but princes can get a lesson from the story of kings? What is Clytemnestra to the vulgar herd? Tragedy is of no good but to great souls — great by birth, by office, or by education. Art in a word is only for the Precious few, — for fine ladies and gentlemen, for those who, whether literally or metaphorically, may be said to wear the blue riband.
After we have reached the point of critical analysis which the Spanish dramatists came to when they propounded a doctrine in art, the equivalent of that in politics which Bentham made so much of — the necessity of studying the greatest pleasure. If pleasure is an enviable thing, it is also very envious — envious even of itself, and lives by comparison. Pleasure varies — it differs in different men, and in the same men at different On varieties timcs.
Notwithstanding this diversity, which is well known, men are ever bent on finding something that will act as a sort of thermometer or joy-measure; and so the Spartan ruler de- creed that no harp should have more than seven strings, the French critics cried aloud for a proper observance of the three unities, and purists in architecture stood out for the five orders.
What is to be said in presence of such a fact as Tasso encountered in his critical analysis — that the romances of Ariosto gave more pleasure to his countrymen than the epics of Homer and Virgil? Is Ariosto, there- Aiui crituai forc, tlio greater artist? Your highly educated persons — your true blues — might be able to appreciate the classics, to get the full quantity of pleasure from them — a pleasure which need not shun comparison or competition with the pleasure.
The former kindle no pleasure at all, or but a few faint sparks; the latter give a great blaze of pleasure. And it therefore appears that if art is to be measured by the amount of enjoyment thus evolved in rude minds, all our most approved critical judgments would be upset. He was easily able to satisfy himself, but had he pushed his inquiries further he would have found the same diflSculty confronting him in another shape. In that shape the diflficulty has so staggered another Frenchman, M. He argues that if pleasure be the end of art, then the more or less of pleasure which an art affords should be the standard of its value, and that in such a case music with its ravishing strains should, in spite of its vagueness, stand at the head of the arts.
But this, according to Cousin, lands us in an absurdity that reflects upon the soundness of the principle from which we set out. Now the chief thing to be noted here is that the standard of pleasure is within us, and' that therefore it varies, to some extent, with the circumstances of each individual. We can never measure it exactly as we can heat with a ther- mometer. Sometimes a man feels cold when the thermometer tells him it is a warm day, and sometimes a man derives little pleasure from a work of art which throws all his friends into rapture.
There is no escaping from these vari- ations of critical judgment, whatever standard of comparison we apply to art. It is impossible to measure art by the foot-rule, to weigh it in a balance with the pound troy, or to deal it forth in gallons. But though the results of art are not reducible to number, and there is no known method of judgment by which we can arrive at perfect accuracy and unanimity, still there is a sort of rough judgment formed, which is as trust- worthy as our common judgments on the tem- perature of the air.
Nor is there any need of gieater accuracy. We should gain nothing by being able to say that this artist is so many inches taller than that, or that one art gives so many more gallons of pleasure than another. La Mcsnardierc comes in here with. These two questions are identical in substance, though there may be some difficulty in granting But an ob- to M. Herbert Spencer, de- clares, at the end of an elaborate essay devoted to prove it, that music must take rank as the highest of the fine arts — as the one which, more than any other, ministers to human welfare.
After these testimonies, there may be some difficulty, I say, in granting to M. Cousin his facts. For the sake of argument, however, let it be granted that music, as the least expressive, is the lowest form of art. How are we to recon- cile this supposition with the fact that it gives. AMwer to Ouc might Tcply to the argument of M.
Tlius, if the end of art is opinion pleasure, the end of science is knowledge. That, ISrnce!. Cousin's regard, and considering the grandeur of its ambition, many thoughtful men will be inclined to concede its claim to the honour. Undoubtedly, therefore, it must be the clearest, the best, and the most certain of the sciences.
Is it so? Is it not well- nigh the direct opposite of this? In that sense, is there no absurdity in speaking of knowledge as the end of science, when the grandest of all tlie sciences gives us the least certain knowledge? Pursuing the line of argument of which M. And so if we are to make comparisons between art and art a thing in itself as useless as it would be to run comparisons between science and science , we have it in our power to say that the intensity of the pleasure produced by an art is not always the standard of its value.
The prolongation of intense enjoyment is sometimes a positive pain, and to procure a lasting pleasure, we must de- scend to a lower level. To use the language of geometry, pleasure has two dimensions, length as well as height. The sum of enjoyment is not to be measured by the height alone of its transports. The more prosaic he became in his daily duties, the more he endeavoured to bring a sense of order and system in all what he did.
And just before his Italian journey, he did extensive studies in the natural sciences. His activities at the University of Jena brought him in intensive contact with comparative anatomy. Goethe showed the biological development of living beings almost years ahead of Charles Darwin. So he decided on the tenth year of his period in Weimar that he had to break up his service. After arranging his farewell from the state service and personal matters, he asked the Duke for a prolonged leave.
He left abruptly, like in in Wetzlar and in Frankfurt, as though he was fleeing from something. After a week-long ride in a coach he reached bella Italia. The first stop was in Rome, where Goethe stayed for four months. It had always been the middle point of his life to study the works of art history in Rome He went to the theatre and attended court cases, watched processions, took part in church festivals, and towards February even visited the Carnival in Rome.
He expanded his knowledge of art history systematically. Goethe found it difficult to say adieu to Rome. The return to Germany was disappointing for Goethe and he felt isolated. Instead of the Weimar politicians and administrators, Goethe sought to fraternise with professors of the Weimar University.
He met Schiller often. Goethe found a new love: Christiane Vulpius, a handsome woman of lower rank who became his mistress, and with whom he had five children, but only one survived, his first son August, born in Goethe put his energy in the Weimar Court Theatre, founded in , and developed it within a few years to one of the most famous German stages.
Out of the first meeting with Schiller developed an intensive exchange of thoughts in spoken word and writing that was of mutual benefit for both. It was based on their common classicism and on their conviction of the central function of art in human affairs. On the other hand, Schiller brought back Goethe from his scientific studies to literature and poetic production.
In Schiller stimulated Goethe to carry on with Faust and it preoccupied him for the next nine years. Part One appeared in , Part Two in He tried to struggle against the uncertainty of time by concentrating and delving into his own work. Without the regular intellectual argumentation that the company of Schiller brought to Goethe, he felt politically isolated through his distance towards the anti-Napoleon attitude of the public and started living like a recluse. Goethe believed tristiane had saved his life from the French marauders.
He married her a few days later. Goethe met Napoeon at Erfurt and Weimar in The Bastille was stormed when Goethe was In he wrote the subtle and problematic novel: Die Wahlverwandschaften in which the interrelations of two couples are described. Besides working for the hat Chance. Soldiers who occupied b Science Institutes of the University, he also carried forth botanical studies.
Since he was seldom out of Weimar, he opened his house for the world. It is interesting to note that among his many visitors were not many poets and writers but more Nature researchers and art historians, discoverers who travelled, educators and politicians. The innermost circle around Goethe was his own family. In order to avoid the pompous celebration of his 82nd birthday, Goethe left Weimar in August for the last time.
Goethe wrote his Faust almost a life long, and before him were writers who worked on the material. According to his own memories Goethe played with the thought of writing a Faust-drama even during his Strassburger student days. Perhaps the most important aspect of tragedy of Goethe is that these twists and turns took place not only in the outside world but also in the soul of Doctor Faustus.
Among his best works was Novelle, started thirty years ago. Goethe worked away at the last volume of Dichtung und Wahrheit and at Faust II which he finished before his death. On March 22, at in the morning Goethe died at the age of 82, the last universal man and the most documented creative writer. Profound peace and fastness were to be seen in the eyes of his noble face. You hear the strings of a sitar Mingling with big band sounds. Percussions from Africa Accompanying ragas from Nepal.
A never-ending performance of musicians From all over the world. A didgeridoo accompaning Japanese drums At the Zeltmusik festival. Tabla and tanpura Involved in a musical dialogue, With trumpet and saxaphone, Argentinian tango and Carribian salsa, Fiery Flamenco dancers swirling proudly With classical Bharta Natyam dancers, Mani Rimdu masked-dancers accompanied By a Tibetan monastery orchestra, Mingling with shrill Swiss piccolo flute tunes And masked drummers.
Barbara church bells begin to chime. And in the distance, A view of the Black Forest, With whispering wind-rotors, And the trees in the vicinity, Full of birds Coming home to roost. Once a small ballet dancer, Now a full grown woman: A choreographer, performer, Ballet and modern dancer, studio pianist. This collection of Nepali poems and prose is a step in the direction of opening Nepal's literature to the German-speaking world in Germany, Austria, South Tirol and Switzerland. If this book creates sympathy and understanding of the Nepali psyche, culture, religion, living conditions and human problems in the Himalayan urban and rural environment in daily life, then it has achieved its goal.
This book is about the Nepali people and the environment they live in, with characters and themes pertaining to the agrarian, soldier, teaching and other milieus. This collection does not profess to represent Nepali literature as a whole, but lays emphasis on certain themes that crop up in the daily lives of the Nepalis.
The Nepali world that the Nepali poets and writers describe and create is a different one, compared to the western one. It is true that modern technology and globalisation have reached Kathmandu Valley and the bigger towns of the Himalayan Kingdom, but the world outside Kathmandu Valley still remains rural and untouched by modernity. The trekking tourism has been booming along the much-treaded trails but village-life has changed little.
The traditional caste-system prevails. Nepal still has immense problems in the socio-cultural, religious, economic sectors. The rampant corruption in all sectors, with special emphasis in politics, commercial and economic sectors has shaken the beliefs of generations of Nepalis.
The much-proclaimed democracy initiated in hasn't been able to fulfil its promises, and maoistic communism is on the rise in the western part of Nepal, where the Nepalis of tibeto-burman origin live, as though it were a panacea for all of this ailing nation's malady. In Solokhumbu, known for its Everest-trekking route, maoists were killed by the police.
According to some organisations at least , Nepalese have left their homes and another 1,8 million have sought refuge in other countries. As time has shown us in the past, there is no genuine cure for all the problems of this country. Nepal's democracy has to learn to crawl before it can walk and after a decade of constitutional democracy, the nation is still in its infancy.
The incessant changes of governments and the rise of communism is irritating not only to the people within, but also the comity of aid-giving nations without. This book cries to be written because there are hardly any books written by Nepali authors. It's always the travelling tourist, geologist, geographer, biologist, climber and ethnologist who writes about Nepal and its people, environment, flora and fauna. The Nepalis are mostly statists in these visit-Nepal-scenarios published in New York, Paris, Munich and Sydney and they are described through western eyes.
But there have been generations of thinking and writing Nepalis, who were either educated in old Benares Varanasi , in British Public Schools in Darjeeling and government schools and colleges in Nepal and India, who have written and published hundreds of books and magazines. Kamal Mani Dixit, Patan's Man-of- Letters, describes as the "Temple of Nepali language," there are 15, Nepali books and different magazines and periodicals about which the western world hasn't heard or read. Nepali literature is also represented in the electronic media and there are quite a number of websites that give Nepali writers the opportunity to have their short-stories and poems published in the web.
I'd like to thank Dada Kamal Mani Dixit for motivating me to translate Devkota's Muna Madan, for this sad but wonderful poem has a message for all people living in the diaspora, far away from their homes and it brings the nostalgia, Sehnsuch and longing that one feels, even when one has found a place to call one's home in a foreign shore. Muna Madan makes us sad, brings tears to one's eyes and gives hope despite the distance, when one hears the refrain from the Himalayas.
The likely readers are the increasing number of male and female trekking tourists, climbers seeking their own limits, peace and tranquillity, spiritual experience or a much-needed monologue in the rarefied heights of the Nepal Himalayas. The book has a glossary within the text information about the original Nepali authors from Nepal and the diaspora of Darjeeling. Collectors from all over the world have been appreciating her superb creations.
She not only makes sketches of her living objects, but also creates replicas, does mould building, casting and baking. Even the clothes and accessoires are exceptional. And she only uses high-quality materials such as original French biscuit clay, precious silk and brocade fabrics. Her special mould-making technique allows unlimited possibilities for experimenting. She lets it stay for twenty-four hours and stirs the mixture again till all the air-bubbles have disappeared.
This porcelain mass is poured into the one-hole form. Depending on the size of the form, you have to wait for three to ten minutes and pour the content back. After that you wait for two hours. As long as the head is soft, you have to work on the throat. She took a scalpel and carved the eyes out. Roswitha was creating a doll in her own way, giving expression to t, till it almost had a life of its own. The head had to be dried in a dry room.
She had a table full of white heads, which needed to be extremely dried. After that the heads were put in an oven and heated to a temperature of degrees Centigrade. Now the doll gets its biscuit colour. Roswitha coloured the eyebrows and lips, then put them back in the oven.
Then she applied the cheek-rouge and the eye-lashes, and put the head in the oven again. In the end you have to choose the right eyes to give the doll a certain character. Next comes the lead of the head, like a scalp and a genuine French hair wig. Satis Shroff The old tradition of the dhami-jhakri in which the fate of a person can be influenced by appeasing the spirits is still intact in Nepal.
For the spirits Geister , be they rough or fine in their manifestations, belong to the everyday lives of the tradition-conscious Nepalese and many other ethnic-peoples in the northern and southern hemispheres of this globe. It must be mentioned that in the 80, hamlets of Nepal, there are over , shamans and traditional healers, who have to some extent acquired the basics of modern medical treatment through the Health Ministry. Disease and conformity: The traditional healers of Nepal are not only versed in the nature of illnesses caused by spirits, demons, male and female witches, Gods and Goddesses, but also diseases which are in conformity with epidemiological studies and results.
The usual diseases that are mentioned by traditional healers are: diarrhoea, coughs, pneumonia, heart-maladies, abdominal pain, pain in the joints and other less specific symptoms like: headaches, body pain, nausea etc. Other commonly mentioned diseases are: vomiting, worm-infections, pickles and boils, carbuncles, cases of goitre in the hills think of the Himalayan-salt ads in the west , different skin problems, tuberculosis, problems of the urinary tract and menstrual disorders and anomalies.
In the past the shamans were not allowed to get rich through healing, and the codex and ethics of the healers in the Himalayas were strict. Today, the Nepalese shaman blesses a life-saving electrolyte solution for the treatment of diarrhoea and dysentery. The shaman has become innovative in Nepal, and makes himself or herself socially useful by ritualising and selling anti-baby pills for a small financial commission. This way, he or she helps Family planning, which is supported by the government. The Nepalese government has raised the status of the shaman by bestowing an official title upon him: Practitioner of Traditional Medicine, with the condition that he or she take part in medical and hygiene courses.
Sociological view: The position of the shamans in the hamlets of Nepal is getting a certain amount of recognition and importance, because he or she gathers new experiences and acquires modern methods of healing, and in this way, the shaman uses a combination of traditional and modern medicine. From a sociological point of view, magico-religious healing plays a central and positive role. The magic and faith in the healing powers of the shaman helps to strengthen the group, tribe or caste by defining a common foe, and in identifying the evil, invisible spirit that has been causing illness.
Moreover, the healing ritual of the shaman late into the night helps to sublime difficult somatic Triebanspruche and to channel them in a socially acceptable and legal way, without being stigmatised in the society as being abnormal or an ill-person. When you boil down the matter between traditional and modern medicine, belief is in the eye of the beholder. The people in Nepal still have faith in the practitioners of traditional medicine, despite the danger of being stigmatised as being superstitious, anachronistic and backward.
The government has found out that even though Health Post have been set up, the people living in the foothills of the Himalayas Mittelgebirge still prefer ritual therapies from their shamans. The medically-trained traditional healers can reach millions of Nepalese through a well-developed strategy. Most of the Dhamis-Jhakris have shown that they are open to new skills in health, population and family-oriented basic knowledge.
Moreover they were and are ready to give their acquired modern knowledge to their respective communities in their hamlets. Traditional complementary medicine has come to stay. It was there all the time in different continents, and is an expression of care, humane-treatment, softness Sanftemedizin , dignity, respect and empathy for the ill person. Time is money. More patients means more money for the physician and the health insurance company. That leaves little time and hope for the hapless, impatient patient.
The value of hope: The value of hope, which is an important resource in different cultures and among traditional healers, is lost in modern medicine. What was Florence Nightingale doing with her candle-light in the bedsides and stretchers of her wounded soldiers in the Crimean War? Was she giving them antibiotics, anti-viral drugs? No, she was giving these forlorn souls a precious medicine named hope. But is traditional medicine entirely based on hope? Certainly not. So does modern medicine, which enjoys perfect packaging and marketing and ads through the media.
Modern medicine is a science because its experiments can be reproduced, it is systematic and can adjust itself in combating new bacteria, viruses and other disease causing microbes. But traditional or complementary medicine is also learning mew methods of treatment and hospital hygiene. Alone in Dr. Since there are more traditional healers than physicians and paramedical personell, the traditional healers are an important resource for the family planning and health organisations in Nepal.
This study has revealed that the traditional healers play an important role. The traditional healers are always ready to visit their patients, even though it means walking through the better part of the day to treat the patients. School medicine has to win the traditional healer as a resource and ally, and not as concurrence, for the common aim of traditional and modern medicine is to free the individual from his or her illness, and provide an efficient and honest cure.
The wellness and recuperation of the patient should be the common goal and not rivalry. This target was fixed by the Nepalese government and the shamans are now treated with respect, asked for assistance and requested to take part in therapy-workshops and medical training projects. Such workshops were held in: Kanchanpur, Chandani municipality, Mahendranagar, Syangja and Ilam in the past. The participating shamans learned how to motivate the people of their respective communities, family-planning and other health-promoting measures.
Causality and logic: The shaman can differentiate the principle of causality and logical thinking and communication. The shaman manifests religion and the art of healing as a coexistence form, and is open for new healing methods if it helps the patient. And to this end, there are universities that are training therapists through the use of modern and traditional medicine by inviting and bringing together traditional healers and modern therapists, medical and nursing students and physicians.
Two German two universities in Heidelberg and Munich have established themselves in the service of traditional and modern medicine by offering workshops and seminars by bringing practitioners of Traditional and Modern Medicine together. It is a marriage between the two systems of medicine. Es unterstreicht die anthropologische Annahme, dass Menschen in der Lage sind, ihr Leben in eigener Bestimmung und Verantwortung zu gestalten. Selbsthilfegruppen in Nepal sind kulturspezifisch. Forstwirtschaftselbsthilfegruppen wie bana djane Waldarbeiter , ghas katne Grassschneider , pat tipne Futtersammler , und daura tipne Feuerholzsammler.
Soziokulturelle Selbsthilfegruppen wie guthi bei den Newars vom Katmandutal , rodi Kommunale Gruppe von den Gurungs und bheja kommunale Gemeinschaft. Manche Organisationen scheinen formell zu sein, aber strukturell sind sie informell. Manche sind kasten- bzw. Der Gesundheitssektor stellt einen Schwerpunktsektor der deutschen7 Entwicklungszusammenarbeit mit Nepal dar. But the NGOs are the creation of the donor agencies as an alternative mechanism. They say your normal administrative channel never reaches the poor which the NGOs can do.
So this is also an imposed idea. But the problem is: How do you coordinate projects and NGOs?
Klärwerk.info - Wegweiser
Die meisten Geber konzentrieren ihre Gelder kaum auf die wirklichen Probleme. Forstwirschaftsselbsthilfegruppen: bana djane Waldarbeiter , ghas katne Grassschneider , pat tipne Futtersammler , daura tipne Feuerholzsammler. Soziokulturelle Selbsthilfegruppen: guthi bei den Newars vom Katmandutal , rodi Kommunale Gruppe von den Gurungs bheja kommunale Gemeinschaft. They use the traditional bullocks and buffaloes that are seen in the villages of Southeast Asia.
They dig the fields manually. The women work beside the men, with babies strapped to their backs. Long wooden hoes are being used to dig and break the soil, whole families pitching in to do the job. And far out in the distance, the all-seeing-eyes of the compassionate Swayambhu observes the land from the towers on which his eyes are painted.
As you start for the temple, you're first greeted by two Tibetan lions, set in stone, amid wonderful wooded surroundings. Behind the lions you see three colossal statues of the Buddha, serene and daubed in flaming red and gold. All around you there are naked trees in poses of suspended animation. The ground crackles as you step on the fallen brown and russet leaves.
Shrill bird cries ring through the air. It is roosting time, you say to yourself. The trees are silhouetted against the evening sky and the shadows are lengthening. Your eyes discern the prayers carved in the granite slabs as you ascend the seemingly endless stairs. A bearded tourist and a bevy of girls giggle nearby, talking in French and eating peanuts. They pass some peanuts to the swarm of monkeys who are a regular feature of Swayambhu. The Rhesus monkeys are creeping, jumping, fooling and fighting with each other.
The overhanging eaves of the stupa, gilded with gold, are loosely chained together. The wind blowing from across the silvery Himalayas makes them rustle. You are dumbfounded by the majestic temple. Three lamas go by: "Om mane padme hum" stirs in the air. You take a cue from them and go about spinning the copper prayer wheels that girdle the dome. Then you peer at the all-seeing-eyes painted on the four sides of the stupa and look where they look: at the myriad pale yellow, white, blue and crimson lights of the Kathmandu Valley below.
You feel that you have indeed reached the top of the world. It is chilly, and an icy gust of wind blows your hair. The clatter of the prayer-wheels is constant. The stony stairs are set at an extremely steep angle, but there are railings to help you up or down. A Tibetan, probably a Khampa from Eastern Tibet, mumbles his prayers as he comes down from the temple. He is wrapped in heavy mauve woollens. A shaggy Tibetan Apso, a tiny dog, like a Pekingese, with bells round his collar jingles past.
You go on. A few paces up, a monkey stealthily passes by as though he were a big-game hunter. You are again confronted by meditating Buddhas: the Dhyanibuddha Akshobya who rides an elephant and a lion, Ratnasambhava who rides a horse, Amitabha who rides the peacock and Amoghasiddhi who rides the heavenly bird garuda.
The going is hard but the ascent is redeemed because of the breathtaking beauty of the place. More Rhesus monkeys dart around you. One of them takes a joy ride along the railings like a kid, skids off and vanishes. You can't help laughing. You abruptly come across two statues of horses: short and stubby. You're weary but you press on and come across small elephant statues, with live monkeys playing pranks on their backs.
The monkeys give you a quizzical stare. These are all part of the Buddhist pantheon. Now you begin to understand why the tourists call this temple complex also "the monkey temple". The monkeys are protected by law as is the yeti and have freedom there since over years. They live on the offerings brought by the Hindus and Buddhists, and peanuts and popcorn offered by the tourists. Your climb is over. The sky is dark, blue, and is fast changing into Prussian blue, and Venus has already appeared, but you have eyes only for the gigantic white dome and stupa of the Self-Existent One.
The stupa is of great sanctity for all Hindus and Buddhists. It is hemispherical and you are struck by its enormous size. The earliest inscription on Swayambhunath dates back to the year , but the stupa is thought to be much older. You make your way to a Buddhist monk and he tells you a legend about Swayambhu It was on this spot, where you now stand that a lotus bloomed and became the heart of the world". The ruling means the the current Kumari, nine-year-old Preeti Shakya, can be freed from a virtual ornate prison in the palace.
The reform comes on the heels of the return to democracy and elimination of the Nepali Hindu monarchy. The Kumari was used to reinforce the legitimacy of the year-old monarchy. The ruling could signal the beginning of the end of the tradition. Officials are livid at the ruling. Rajan Maharajan, the vice president of the committee that looks after the Kumari and her palace. In any case, she is a goddess so how can court rulings apply? As the video shows below, however, the Kumari is not allowed to speak to anyone. While the Kumari is a living princess, she loses that status when she starts menstruating — then a new Kumari is selected.
The tradition obviously repels many feminists and Westerners. The ecological minded mayor of Kathmandu rounded up 88 stray cows and has auctioned them outside Kathmandu Valley. The auction yielded 64, rupees to the Kathmandu municipality. The holy cows of Kathmandu have been declared as public nuisances and obstruction to the traffic in the city. Till recently, the cows of Kathmandu walked at a leisurely gait with that notable air of nonchalance which all Nepalese high-brow cows possess because they're revered and worshipped by the Hindus.
During my summer holidays I happened to be in Kathmandu seeping in the symphony of colour, noise and sights of Kathmandu perched smack in the middle of Indrachowk. The noise emitted by the haggling vendors and customers, the high pitched bells of the temples mingling with the honks of scooters, and the sound of bamboo flutes, and the occasional moo of a languidly straying cow who love the vegetable market.
This was the sound that I had missed in Freiburg. The smell of burning sandalwood incense sticks, steaming momos, mangoes, gauvas and lotus, marigold and magnolias permeated the air. Add to this cacaphony the unruffled tourists and you get a picture of the pulsating life in this Himalayan bazaar. In the meantime, another cow, this time a white one with pink ears but hopelessly bent horns, tried to go through a bevy of giggling saffron-wrapped college girls.
The flying vegetable market in Kathmandu is a shanty affair with make-shift transitory shops because the policeman keeps on telling them to park their vegetables elsewhere. A steel-blue Ford cruised by noiselessly like a ghost of a battleship. The indigenous push-cart dubbed gurkha-jeep rumbled by, pushed by brawny Tamang porters. Nearby, a small Japoo-child in his birthday suit prodded a big brown cow with a puny stick. Right near where I was perched was a local Jyapoo Newari farmer selling yellow bananas.
The bananas looked ripe and the Jyapoo looked prosperous. The good man was busy haggling with his customer: a fat, supercilious Rana lady, and that was when a cow appeared and started munching the bananas without as much as a moo. Half a comb of bananas later, the Jyapoo finally saw the cool cow. What he did next was utterly remarkable. He performed what might be best described as a VTO. He took of from the ground like a British Harrier jet and then thundered at the calm cow. She galloped off like a horse. But that wasn't the end of it. The frightened cow bolted like an unguided missile through the commuters, pedestrians and what-have-yous in the alleys of Kathmandu in its fright.
A cyclist was knocked down and quite a number of Hindus and Buddhists got edgy because of the onrushing cow. Upai chaina! What shall I do? According to a legend, a Nepalese king ordered cows to be set free in the streets of Kathmandu by families in mourning to share the pain of the death of a young prince. And since then children in Kathmandu Valley disguise themselves as grotesque cows and motley figures and dance to make the queen laugh. The queen in the legend is long dead but the cow-festival 'Gaijatra' remains. As you walk the streets of Kathmandu, along Asan Tole, Indrachowk and Basantapur near the Freak Street, which is actually called Jhoche Tole, you see the old Newari women with golden pierced ears and children watching you with a curiosity from the artistically carved wooden windows.
You cannot help feel being watched, because the doors of Kathmandu have the all-seeing eyes of the primordeal Buddha painted on them. Below every house leading into the streets, you see shops selling almost everything: from textiles, electronic goods, pots and pans, and outsized gagros copper vases for ritual ceremonies and festivals.
The carpets are eye-catching despite that fact that the colourful ethnic dragons, snow lions and mandalas are disappearing to suit European living rooms in pastel-colours ordered per fax. There are souvenirs on display such as: curved Gurkha khukris, statues of temples, tantric gods in ecstatic poses, gargoyles, thankas icons , Buddhas and animals in bronze and messing. The entire temples and altars seem to be on-sale. And the gods seem to be moving out. And out in the distance beyond the forest of Nagarjun: the silence of the Himalayas, revered and worshipped by the Hindus and Buddhists.
They even had self-baked cakes for diabetics, not that we had insulin problems, but I do remember that my diabetic Creative Writing Professor Bruce Dobler would order a sandwich, weigh it on his portable Waage meticulously. Every gram seemed to count. The tea was excellent and the butter cakes delicious. Through the white painted windows we could see the blue North Sea and the boats. Trawlers were approaching the harbour bringing in their haul.
Our table had a glass case filled with Darjeeling tea leaves. Thomas asked if it was the First Flush or the Second? After the excellent Fresian tea we went for a walk along the dyke to the harbour. To our left was the Watt, which had been laid artificially, and which had become a habitat for all sorts of birds among them naturally a numerous sea-gulls. Behind us we could see the bunkers built during the Third Reich, td been constructed though the iron-door leading to it was closed.
Where the tarmac had been constructed for the German Luftwaffe, was now a dense forest, but the impeccable landing area was still intact. Private twin-motored planes took-off and landed now and again. On August 3, some Soviet prisoners of war were brought to Langeoog. What we saw were figures in rags and uncouth due to the imprisonment, a very depressing picture.
The youngest POW was 15 years old, and they had to work at the airport of Langeoog. After the krieg the island community is said to have created a passable memorial. On August 26, came the French prisoners of war to Langeoog. The treatment was harder than usual in the Isle of Langegoog, but not comparable to the treatment of Soviet prisoners. Just before midnight on September 7, Langeoog was bombed again.
To the south of the airport incendiary bombs were counted. A ship under construction received 15 splitters and the harbour building was completely destroyed. He knew through his own suffering and experience what freedom meant, and he also knew what personal freedom one had to sacrifice to achieve freedom for all, for freedom is not only a word. Freedom means words and deeds, as is evident in the Tibetan issue where people around the world are reacting and agitating for the fundamental rights of a country called the Roof of the World.
The Complete Poems of Tyutchev In An English Translation by F.Jude
Meanwhile, you could discern a hoot from an outwards bound ship or the red catamaran which commutes between Langeoog and Benzersiel, and the incessant cries of the sea-gulls vying with each other to get a morsel of fish from the trawlers that were coming to their home-harbour. The inhabitants of Langeoog are facing a tough time battling against Nature.
The sea, which is washing away the island is one factor, and the influx of people with a lot of capital from the mainland is the other factor. The dunes are very important for the islands and coasts just as the wind, water and sun. Like the Watt and salty meadows, the dunes and other habitats also underlie special dynamic changes and some flora and fauna need these changes. Strandhafer, Strandroggen and Stranddistel live here.
Brandgeese and sea-gulls breed primarily in the dunes. The dunes are much higher than the dykes and a lot broader. Every year, the west-wind and west-waves bring thousands of tons of sand from the East Sea to the North Sea. The protection of the coast and nature conservation go hand in hand. One remarkable feature of the Isle of Langeoog is that it has been long declared a car-free zone. The main means of communication in the Isle is with an old, gaudy diesel-driven train that brings you to the town from the harbour. After that you can hire a horse-driven taxi, bicycle or go on foot.
The cars remain in Bensersiel mainland. And unless you know someone in the island who has a plane, everyone is obliged to take the ferry. We walked along the north-west beach into the small town. The beach was littered with churned sea-shells, sea-weed and plastic garbage of the tourists. The people of Langeoog have to separate their garbage and put them in the respective bins—as everywhere in Germany, Switzerland and Austria. Green bins for paper, brown for biological or organic garbage and yellow plastic bags for PVC and plastic garbage. He introduced us to the dangers and secrets of the Watt, which is typical for Germany and Scandinavian countries.
We walked every metres into the sea, and Uwe dug his fork into the sea-bed and showed us the wonders of the North Sea Watt: crustaceans and molluscs, crabs, shrimps, worms and their habitats. How the heart-mussel and clams live, and how to get a glass full of shrimps swimming in water. He loved to tell you about the peristaltic of the worms in comparison to humans, their reproductive and digestive systems.
It was what you might call a marine biology lecture carried at a hilarious, non-scientific level and the people loved him for it. But Uwe was very self-conscious and he went on candidly comparing humans with molluscs. The children and grown-ups had a good time. And it got difficult to pull out the gum-boots out of the Schlack dark, sticky, muddy water. It was a moment when I thought it would perhaps be better to leave my gum-boots behind.
But I somehow managed to walk on. The Wattwanderung along the shores of the Isle of Langeoog was interesting and strenuous and we learned quite a lot about the wildlife and acquatic animas on the shores of the North Sea Wattenmeer. Another day it was a chilly, and we could feel the gusts of wind blowing to the island from the North Sea.
Although we had our pullovers, jackets and gum-boots on, as we trudged along between the beach and the waves, busy gathering sea-shells, a woman in the autumn of her life, wearing a one-piece bathing suit in anthroposophical orange pastell colours, walked to the sea and began swimming in the cold, wind-swept water.
She was very courageous, disciplined and trimmed for a hard life, I thought. Ach, how wonderful. I think of the colourful Wicker beach-chairs with hoods, And the small island train. I think of Flut and Ebbe, Of time and tide, Clams, starfish, seaweed. The shores full of shrimps, Sea-urchins and jelly-fish. As a long-time Freiburger, I went with him to a local tavern near the Schwabentor for a swig of German beer. His poor wife had to remain in Lenzerheide with the children. In the case of Toni Hagen, however, he seemed to be a wandering soul, even in the winter of his life, spending half of his time in the Swiss Alps and the other half in the Himalayas.
He was one of the last living witnesses of a secretive Nepal of the Middle Ages. As the first foreigner who had the freedom of travelling in Nepal as he pleased, Hagen visited areas which are still forbidden to most people even today. When I saw the film, I had the uneasy feeling that he was saying goodbye to us all.
With the passage of time, Toni Hagen changed his profession from geology to development-work, and he was deeply concerned about the problems of development aid, its successes and failures not only in Nepal but also in many other countries. The people interested him more than the stratigraphic formations. He took delight in the fact that the World Bank stopped the Arun III project in Nepal thanks to his efforts and the united lobbying on the part of the ecological organisation Urgewalt, Dr.
After the World Bank decision not to finance the dam project, it was taken for granted that the million marks from the German side would be set aside for other smaller projects. What Nepal needs are not atomic plants but water-works. In those days, the only pressure that Nepal had as a sovereign state was from India in connection with the trade and transit disagreements. Times have changed and the threat is from within, in the form of maoists, and not from without.
Singh, who also presented him a key to the city. And according to Toni Hagen the river system existed before the Nepal Himalayas came into existence. The Himalayan rivers carved gigantic gorges. Etwas Nicht-Verrottetes musste vielmehr gegen den Verfall gewirkt, sich dagegen gestemmt haben. Wie kann die Theorie sie verwerfen? Man kann nur mit dem jungen Schiller sagen: Die Erfahrung beweist sie.
Wie ist sein Bild auf uns gekommen in der besonderen Form, in der wir ihn gemeinhin verstehen? Humboldt an Schiller. Die Wirkung von Schillers Deutung hielt an. Er kam aber auch dann nur schwer von Schillers Schema los, er hat sogar in einer Flucht nach vorn das Schillersche Begriffspaar aufgegriffen und dessen Bezug noch erweitert. Mit diesem harten Tausch von Leben gegen Werk sind wir jedoch nunmehr voll auf Goetheschem Boden, denn es handelt sich um Verwandlung, um. Was nach und trotz der Verwandlung von Leben in Tod erhalten bleibt, wird am Schluss als eine doppelte positive Verwandlung heraufbeschworen, die den Lebenssinn triumphal rettet.
Lesley Sharpe. Schiller is a playwright who is associated with an instinctive and indeed flam- boyant theatricality. But Schiller had an uneasy and ambivalent relationship with the world of theatre, and, if we look back to the Mannheim period in particular, the theatre had an uneasy relationship with him. I do this in the light of his experience with three theatres Mannheim, Weimar and Berlin and in relation to two other playwrights — Lessing and Iffland. Mannheim, Weimar and Berlin were all important in establishing Schiller in the contemporary repertoire.
Quotations are identified by NA with volume and page numbers. Leipzig In fact, as the theatre was being set up, Lessing had been invited in to join it as Director but he was unwilling to take on more than an advisory role. One of the leading advocates of the theatre, Dalberg, successfully peti- tioned the Elector for the theatre to be maintained in order to preserve and. Handbuch und Ausstellungskatalog. Regensburg In: Mein Klima ist das Theater. Schiller und Mannheim. Mannheim The company he engaged was that of Abel Seyler, previously a Hamburg businessman who had been one of the financial backers of the Hamburg National Theatre project and had lost a considerable amount of money as a result.
After its collapse he had formed his own company, for a time in con- junction with the renowned Hamburg actor Konrad Ekhof. Seyler was obliged to leave Mannheim in but he helped Dalberg develop at the theatre what would become a characteristic style, based on a belief in the need to achieve a balance between a more natural style of playing and a certain nobility and ideal- isation. Dalberg himself was among a group of dedicated advocates of the Mannheim theatre who supported the belief that standards of drama and per- formance could be raised and the theatre be a channel for enlightenment.
Aligning himself with Lessing was in other words a tactical move more than an expression of per- sonal homage, for in this tactic Schiller surely saw the way to establish himself at the theatre. For example, Fiesko uses the Appius Claudius theme, as Emilia Galotti, though for a different purpose, had done. Wittenberg In: Modern Language Review Both Lessing and Schiller were critics as well as playwrights. The Hamburg venture was supported by private sponsors; Mannheim received a limited subvention from the Elector Karl Theodor.
Both theatres were very dependent on success at the box office. But the context of theatre had changed quite considerably between Hamburg in the late s and Mannheim in the early s, as an examination of the repertoire shows. One of the striking differences between the two repertoires is the fact that Hamburg did not offer operas or Singspiele though ballet was frequently performed , whereas at Mannheim about a quarter to a third of all performances come under the heading of Musiktheater.
When Seyler, for example, formed his company with Ekhof after the collapse of the Hamburg venture he immediately began to offer opera and Singspiel and was responsible in Weimar and Gotha between and for the enrichment of the repertoire through works such as Alceste with a libretto by Wieland and Die Dorfgala with a libretto by Gotter by the resident composer Anton Schweitzer.
Von der Antike bis zur Gegenwart
Musiktheater at Mannheim was, as at almost all German theatres by this time, a mainstay of the repertoire. Another striking feature if. Lessing: Hamburgische Dramaturgie. Stuttgart Cambridge German tragedies were played on thirty-four evenings, with Christian Felix Weisse the most-performed tragedian, his Romeo und Julie enjoying nine performances. What one does not find in Mannheim, in common with most other theatres, is Sturm und Drang drama. Shakespeare had opened up another style of serious drama from that of the French neo-classical.
The Sturm und Drang, however, had created a backlash, a rejection of the experimental in drama. Successful playwrights. Leipzig Theatergeschichtliche Forschungen A breakdown by type of play and partial repertoire is given in Hamburgische Dramaturgie, pp.
Hof- und Nationaltheaters in Mannheim. Gotter assumed something like the role of honorary adviser to the Mannheim theatre.
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He was a much-performed dramatist and libret- tist and strong supporter of the theatre at Gotha, his native town. Added to this suspicion of the experimental was the taste for the sentimen- tal, which could all too easily be fed on the grounds that the theatre was there to edify spectators and show them examples of moral goodness. The decline in popularity of tragedy opened up scope for sentimental drama, and this taste was also boosted by the popularity of Musiktheater, for Musiktheater was also often strongly sentimental in character.
Fiesko had already been published in with its original ending, in which Verrina kills Fiesko when he refuses to renounce ducal power. When Schiller was subsequently engaged at Mannheim he had to produce a version with a non-tragic ending, an ending different, in other words, from the one already known to the reading public. Fiesko is challenged by Verrina, who attempts to assassinate him, only for Fiesko to renounce power voluntarily.
Sein Leben und seine Werke. In: Die Grenzboten. Schiller always presents us with a world that needs changing but also with flawed individuals, whose visions of a better order cause chaos and destruction. These plays cast serious doubt on any secure moral and religious presuppositions. As well as criticising a corrupt order, the plays expose a powerless bourgeoisie in a world in which, as in Kabale und Liebe, moral goodness offers no protection.
But the playwright who was the logical endpoint of the Enlightenment debate on the theatre was arguably August Wilhelm Iffland. His plays combined a successful depiction of characters in recognisable milieux with a moralising streak that provided instant audience satisfaction and the triumph of the solid bourgeois, often over an effete aristocracy. What had happened to the repertoire between Hamburg and Mannheim had prepared for Iffland. As mentioned above, the most performed serious drama- tists at Hamburg were Voltaire, with twenty-two performances and Christian Felix Weisse with eighteen.
Weisse, for example had largely ceased to be performed as a tragedian by the mids but his librettos Die Jagd, Lottchen am Hofe and Die Liebe auf dem Lande, all adapted from French sources, made him still a much-performed writer. Iffland wrote at least two more plays that were not successful until he hit upon the audience-pleasing formula with Verbrechen aus Ehrsucht.
It was clear which of the two had a future at the theatre. Heidelberg Beihefte zum Euphorion Although Don Carlos provoked a creative crisis in Schiller and he had stopped writing plays, nevertheless the existing ones, not least among them Don Carlos, continued to be successful in the theatre. From to the company of Joseph Bellomo had played in Weimar to a very mixed reception.
When Bellomo moved on, Duke Karl August, perhaps spurred on by the creation elsewhere of court theatres based in part on subsidy and in part on commercial enterprise, brought the Weimar court theatre into being. Goethe was not enthusiastic about being its first Director, but in spite of approaches to suitable candidates for example the Mannheim actor and playwright and friend of Schiller, Heinrich Beck 24 no-one else could be found for the task.
It was, after all, a small provincial theatre with an uncertain future. It was subsidised by Karl August to the tune of about a third of its costs but it had to find the rest of its income by providing entertainment that attracted good audiences. There was a perform- ance three evenings a week, the usual mix of comedy, Singspiel and opera and some serious drama.
Fiesko was not performed until twice. Leipzig Theatergeschichtliche Forschungen 1. Erste Periode — Berlin He saw his future dramas as making their lasting impact through the printed word and that medium was what concerned him most. Goethe, who by then was wanting to give up the post of Director, was hoping to attract Iffland to take his place.
The Egmont adaptation did not lead immediately to more theatre collaboration between Schiller and Goethe. Rather it opened up differences in emphasis and approach more likely to deter them. He had written his critical review of the play in at a time when he was deeply troubled by the compositional difficulties he had encountered in writing Don Carlos. He knew that when he returned to dramatic writing he would face the challenge of overcoming them. The Egmont adaptation gave him the chance to put into. Ed by Karl Richter et al.
Munich — This edition will be cited henceforth as MA with volume and page numbers. Genast n. He concedes that the three-part play will make fewer demands on the theatre by requiring fewer actors at any given moment, but this is clearly a secondary consideration and poetic quality takes precedence over theatrical viability. Schiller knew that Wallenstein was his great test as a dramatist. He simply would not let stage considerations and par- ticularly not the limited resources of the Weimar stage determine his work.
In: Modern Language Review 77 Wallensteins Lager opened the new season in October Then Schiller spent five weeks in Weimar in early to assist with the rehearsals for Die Piccolomini and Wallensteins Tod. Karl August expressed the hope of seeing more of him in Weimar and Schiller found that, in spite of the secluded life he lived in Jena, he could cope with the social commitments that went with life in Weimar. So he petitioned the Duke for the necessary rise in pension to make a move to Weimar possible, saying specifically that he wanted to be closer to the theatre.
From then on he took a very active role in the prestige productions. Schiller now found himself in an ideal position as a dramatist with serious literary ambitions who nevertheless wanted to be performed. Also, the Weimar audience, though not large, would consist of a fair number of discerning people. He could thus also use the Weimar Theatre as a place to try out the text and amend it before it went into print, as was the case, for example with the placing of the division between Die Piccolomini and Wallensteins Tod. It was Schiller who gave Goethe the impetus to try the non-naturalistic, experimental style that became recognisably the Weimar style.
Though Karl August gave a subsidy, the theatre had to be financially viable. The repertoire resembled that of most theatres at the time; in other words, as at Mannheim, about a third of all performances were Musiktheater, about a third comedies and about a third serious dramas, among which by the s the plays of Iffland and Kotzebue were very numerous. With his move to Weimar, however, the Weimar experiment got under way. He identifies phases in its development. This development led in turn to the capacity of the theatre to broaden its repertoire and to move towards the stylisation needed to attempt performances of classical plays in masks.
This was a challenge that by Schiller had already taken up through his adaptations of works such as Nathan der Weise, Macbeth and Turandot, as well as in his own plays. The Berlin publisher Unger was keen to take this on if Goethe and Schiller would be the. What Goethe does not emphasise here, as he is concentrating on German the- atre, is that he and Schiller wished to create a German repertoire that was both German and international.
The decline of tragedy and the dominance of the Familiendrama at the end of the eighteenth century had led to some narrowing of the repertoire, the patchy introduction of Shakespeare being the limited exception to this trend. The opportunity to influence the repertoire in a lasting way came from a dif- ferent and unexpected direction, however, namely from Iffland.
As soon as Iffland knew that Schiller was at work on a new play he was keen to secure it for Berlin and paid Schiller without demur a large sum for the right to perform it. He had, of course, to reconcile that ambi- tion with his responsibility as a businessman to keep the theatre afloat financially, and unlike many theatres, such as Weimar and Mannheim, the Berlin Nationaltheater was open days a year and so, in spite of a much larger potential pool of theatre-goers, Iffland had to struggle to fill the house.
This attitude reflects not only literary ambition, indeed a sense of literary calling, it also indicates a belief that his lasting reputation would be founded on the sale of his printed work. It also springs from an awareness that the sale of his printed work was vital to secure the future of his wife and children when he was gone — and he knew that that would be before he reached a great age.
In: Wechselwirkungen. Bonn — Berlin — Brussels On Schiller and Iffland, see esp. Schiller was naturally gratified to see his plays given the lavish productions in Berlin that could never be afforded at the small and underfunded Weimar theatre. But Iffland knew his audience. He wanted more plays like Die Jungfrau von Orleans, offering spectacle, whereas an austere play with a chorus such as Die Braut von Messina presented him with a challenge artistically and commercially. The core of the audience in Berlin covered quite a broad social spectrum, much broader than in Weimar.
Only comparatively few were regular attenders and so had to be attracted by appealing productions. Greifswald Fetting records Kotzebue as the most performed dramatist over all, with perform- ances of a total of 86 plays. Schiller comes second with performances of 13 plays, including translations and adaptations p. Um das letztere ist es mir zu tun. Ion, Regulus, Coriolan werden geachtet. Eugenia wird von einer kleinen Zahl angebetet — das Lustspiel sinkt — die Oper, wenn sie nicht das Zauberreich darstellt […] greift nicht.
Da wir bei der Braut von Messina nicht verloren haben, da dieses Werk stets auf dem Repertoir bleiben wird, darf ich um so unbefangener von meiner Lage zu Ihnen reden. If only Schiller could give him prior warning of when he will finish a play; if only Schiller would send him the acts he has completed; if only Schiller could at least tell him how many and specifically what sets he antici- pates — then Iffland could plan ahead and get the play on stage at a point when it can draw the maximum audiences and bring in the most money.
Schiller of course made his own suggestions. He knew and admired some of the company in Berlin and several times suggested who should play what role in a production of one of his plays. And Iffland made concessions to high art by taking over a number of. Ifflands Direktion bis Ein Beitrag zur Methodologie der Theaterwissenschaft. Iffland did not adopt the Weimar style of playing but Wahnrau disputes the widespread notion that the actors at the Berlin theatre did not speak verse properly.
Karl August responded to the possibility of losing Schiller by raising his income. In the end Schiller pro- posed a compromise to Berlin that would allow him to spend several months a year in the city and to return to Weimar for peace to write. Perhaps understand- ably, no answer came to this suggestion and Schiller remained in Weimar. Iffland helped establish Schiller as one of the mainstays of the repertoire not only in Berlin but in Germany generally and did much to form a repertoire in spoken drama that was predominantly German but also international.
The dominance of French drama in the German theatre that Lessing bemoaned at the end of the Hamburgische Dramaturgie was giving way by the end of the eighteenth century, of course in part through the plays of Iffland and Kotzebue, to the dominance of popular German drama on stage. If we look at the repertoire in the s, Iffland and even more so Kotzebue were very popular still along. Stadt der Theater. Bonn ; Das Repertorium des Stadttheaters zu Leipzig — Bonn Pages 64 and 65 give a breakdown of perform- ances each year by the most popular playwrights.
Stuttgart — Berlin Unthinking veneration of Schiller, which lasted well into the twentieth century, took precedence over attempts to understand his works. He did not wish to be a hero. Das Denkmal, das in Warschau an den Ghetto-Aufstand von erinnert, bei dem etwa Dannecker, dem Schiller auf seiner Schwabenreise —94 Modell gesessen hatte, schrieb nach Schillers Tod an dessen Schwager Wilhelm von Wolzogen, wie schwer ihn die Nachricht vom unerwarteten Ableben seines Freundes getroffen habe.
Am Leben, Werk und Wirkung. Wiederkehr seines Geburtstags. Welcher Schiller? Goethe hat ihm im Brief an Zelter vom 9. In den 70er und 80er Jahren des Heinrich Heine hat sich dieser Auffassung billigend angeschlossen. Wenn die Freiheit erstritten ist, die Arbeit getan ist, kann der Mohr dann gehen? Schiller, der Liebling der Frauen, ist ja nicht Schiller, der Heros.
Zur problematischen Ehre dieser Benennung ist Schiller. Renate Francke. Berlin — Paris: Akademie-Verlag Schiller wurde nie mehr gesund, es gab nur noch Perioden eines relativen Wohlbefindens. Heroisch also wurde dieser Kampf ums Dasein genannt; tapfer und energisch war er auf jeden Fall. Heroisch auch dies, wurde gesagt. Die Poesie kann dem Menschen werden, was dem Helden die Liebe ist. Sie wurde am 8. Geburtstag seines Lieblingsdichters beging. Reinhold schrieb, zog sich durch sechs Nummern der Zeitschrift Nr.
November irgendwo vorgetragen worden waren. Stuttgart: Cotta Auch die Deutschen im Ausland feierten am November , und die Reden und Gedichte aus fernen Regionen klangen nicht viel anders als die in der Heimat. Ein Dr. Jahrhunderts beigebracht hatten, zu verdanken.
Das folgende Zitat S. Schiller schrieb diese Verse vermutlich, als seine Frau Charlotte im November , einige Wochen nach der Geburt des dritten Kindes, mit dem Tod rang. Jahrhundert verwurzelt war. Und dem Autor gefiel auch noch nach einem hal- ben Jahrhundert, was er da gesagt hatte. Bernhard Zeller. Stuttgart: Klett Es wurde vielleicht nicht gut, aber es wurde fertig. Und als es fertig war, siehe, da war es auch gut. Sie taten es in Versen. Mai in der Wiener Neuen Freien Presse erschienenen. In: Simplicissimus. Illustrierte Wochenschrift.
Gedichts , aus dem unschwer abzulesen ist, dass der Feiernde zum Gefeierten keine rechte Beziehung hatte. Nicht unkritisch ging er darin mit der gedankenlosen Heldenverehrung des Errege nicht mein Sehnen! Zeller wie Anm. Die alte Oberlehrerfrage: Was sagt uns Schiller heute? Bei der Antwort sollte auf die Begriffe Heldentum und Kampf verzichtet werden; das lehrt die Vergangenheit, hier: die Rezeptionsgeschichte Schillers, von der einiges berichtet wurde. Hier dienen sie allein der Kontrastierung und damit Konturierung des zuvor Gesagten. Schiller war so tapfer wie ehrgeizig. Der in der Vergangenheit nicht selten vorgenommene Vergleich der.
Humboldt vom Dass mit Chirons Versen auf Schiller ange- spielt wird, ist ebenfalls nicht wahrscheinlich. In: Oellers wie Anm. Die Jungfrau, von der uns. So versuchte es Schiller immer wieder mit seinen dramatischen Figuren, den sogenannten Helden, auch denen, die — wie Franz Moor, Marquis Posa und Max Piccolomini — im Titel nicht genannt werden: sie menschlich zu zeigen und deshalb zum Scheitern zu verurteilen. Und er schrieb nicht von hohem Thron, aus einer himmelblauen Idealenwelt, frei imaginierend, sondern aus Erfahrung, mit stetem Bezug auf sich selbst — Held auch er, aber ganz anders, als die Nachwelt ihn so gerne sah.
Er stellte sich mit und in seinen Figuren auf die Bretter, die ihm die Welt waren. Gehorchen und Herrschen! Noch in zwei weiteren Dramen hat Schiller seine literarischen Helden zu Sprachrohren seiner selbst gemacht. Keiner der Schillerschen Theaterhelden ist ein Heros, so wenig, wie der Dichter selbst einer war. Die gottgedachte Spur, die sich erhalten!
Berlin: Duncker und Humblot Jochen Golz. Monumente zu Lebzeiten? Since the invention of printing, the aim had been to produce aesthetically perfect copies of the aesthetically valid and timelessly important work of an author. Using Schiller as an example, this essay explains how both principles are reflected in his activities as an editor.
Auch sie wollten ein Denkmal, dauernder als Erz, der Nachwelt hinterlassen. Der Gliederung einer Ausgabe wurde in der Regel der aus der Antike tradierte Gattungskanon zugrunde gelegt. In dieses historische Umfeld treten Autoren, die vom Ertrag ihrer Feder leben wollen — wie z.
Frankfurt am Main — Leipzig: Insel Und nun betrachte man die Arbeiten deutscher Poeten und Prosaisten von entschied- nem Namen! Mit Wieland war er seit seinem ersten Weimarer Aufenthalt im Jahre in mehrfacher Hinsicht verbunden. Es gelang ihm, einige Texte im Merkur. Weimarer Ausgabe. Starnes: Christoph Martin Wieland.
Leben und Werk. Sigmaringen: Thorbecke Die Summe, die Schiller zu diesem Zeitpunkt ziehen konnte, war klein. Bereits am Auf Schillers Brief vom Erschienen ist der erste Band dann im September Als potentieller Wirkungsstratege erweist sich Schiller in diesem Text. Etwa in der Mitte seines Vorberichts kommt Schiller auf den entscheidenden Punkt zu sprechen. Die Jungfrau von Orleans z. Die so entstehende urheberrechtliche Situation machte eine Sammeledition von Schillers Dramen, an der sein Hauptverleger Cotta sehr interessiert war, nicht einfacher.
Januar schlug er als Titel Theater von Schiller vor, nachdem er im Brief vom Cotta als Verleger steuerte eine Vorrede bei:. Beide Periodika stattete Schiller mit eigenen Gedichten aus. Den Horen blieben Gedichte mit hohem philosophisch-gedanklichen Anspruch vorbehalten z. Von an brachten die Horen nur noch vereinzelt Gedichte von Schiller. Sein Interesse konzentrierte sich, was die eigene Dichtung betraf, auf den Musenalmanach. Zum Jahresende mussten die Horen ohnehin ihr Erscheinen einstellen. Der erste Teil der Kleineren prosaischen Schriften erschien erst , von den theatralischen Schriften war nicht mehr die Rede, und auch mit der Zusammenstellung der Gedichte kam Schiller nicht voran.
Vorher schon hatte er im Brief vom 3. Eine Tagebuchnotiz Goethes vom Im August lagen die Gedichte von Friederich Schiller. Dezember noch zugesagt, fehlten. Du wirst manche vergeblich darinn suchen, theils weil sie ganz wegbleiben theils auch weil es mir an Stimmung fehlte, ihnen nach- zuhelfen. In seiner Antwort vom Der Inhalt der Sam- mlung setzt sich im wesentlichen aus drei Textgruppen zusammen: 1. Die Gedichte aus den Jahren — fanden dann in der zweiten, verbesserten und vermehrten Ausgabe des zweiten Bandes Aufnahme, die noch zu Schillers Lebzeiten erschien.
Die wilden Produkte eines jugendlichen Dilettantisms, die unsichern Versuche einer anfangenden Kunst und eines mit sich selbst noch nicht einigen Geschmacks finden sich hier mit solchen zusammengestellt, die das Werk einer reifern Einsicht sind. April zufolge, den Ersten und Zweiten Teil der Gedichtsammlung verschmelzen. Oktober bezeugt:. In neuer Auswahl und Anordnung wurden die Votivtafeln vorgelegt. So hat Schiller z. An mehreren Stellen sind zudem Umstellungen erwogen worden. The chief danger is that representatives and representations will usurp the place rightfully belonging to the thing or person they are standing in for, and thus block their effects and purposes.
Since unmediated access to them is impossible, we seem to be condemned to a perpetual displacement of substance by its shadow. On rational grounds alone, the difference between representatives or representations, and the things or persons they represent, cannot be overcome. But it can be overlooked in a playful regression to pre-rational modes of thought, in which the representation magi- cally is what it represents. This resolution of a semiotic difficulty has far-reaching eth- ical consequences. Only on condition of imaginative regression can the beneficent impulses of nature be represented within culture and thus replenish the resources of our moral life.
Dass z. Gerhard Fricke u. Herbert G. Und zwar wirkte dieser Begriff doppelt beunruhigend. Auf Abruf waren sie damit entlegitimiert. Gerade da standen und stehen die Dinge misslich. Der Stellvertreter kann aber per. Peter H. Ulrich Gaier. Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta Man kann z. In der Person des Volksvertreters kommt das Volk an die Macht und wird zugleich von der Macht ferngehalten. Die eine Fragestellung vertritt immer auch die anderen mit. Roger Hermes. Es stehen vielmehr ethisch-menschliche Grundsatzfragen auf dem Spiel.
Spricht die Seele, so spricht ach! Doch es gelingt ihr nicht. Sie macht sich wortreich breit, wo eigentlich ein in Worten nicht zu Fassendes zur Entfaltung kommen sollte. Kaiser: Augenblicke deutscher Lyrik. Gedichte von Martin Luther bis Paul Celan. Otto Dann u. In: Journal meiner Reise im Jahr Reiner Wisbert. Herder: Von der Ode. Hier muss das darzustellende Objekt […], ehe es vor die Einbildungskraft gebracht und in Anschauung verwandelt wird, durch das abstrakte Gebiet der Begriffe einen sehr weiten Umweg nehmen, auf welchem es viel von seiner Lebendigkeit sinnlichen Kraft verliert.
Die Sprache stellt alles vor den Verstand, und der Dichter soll alles vor die Einbildungskraft bringen darstellen ; die Dichtkunst will Anschauungen, die Sprache gibt nur Begriffe. Noch indem die Kultur sich der Natur annimmt, tut sie ihr Gewalt an. Das entbehrt wie gesagt nicht einer gewissen Tragik. Und gerade diese Erneuerung war ja bei der Hinwendung zur Natur beabsichtigt gewesen.
Nun ist aber das Spannende bei Schiller, dass er nicht bei diesen doch etwas wohlfeilen Klagen stehenbleibt. Mai  im Werther. Text und Kommentar. Es geht hier um weit mehr als abstrakte Probleme der Zeichentheorie. Zum philosophischen Hintergrund, vgl. Wolfgang Riedel: Die Anthropologie des jungen Schiller. Die Verwurzelung der Natur im Kunstprodukt nahm dabei scheinbar unfreiwillig komische Formen an. Im Grunde geht es nicht um die physische Wirklichkeit der beschriebenen Handlung.
Schiller will damit allen Beteiligten ein Zeichen setzen.
Tugend und Laster
In einer Parodie der im letzten Jahrzehnt des Roger Lonsdale. Oxford: Oxford University Press Diese ist aber nur mit den Mitteln der Kunst zu voll- bringen. In: The Poems of Marianne Moore. Grace Shulman. London: Faber and Faber Damit ver- weist Schiller auf das entspannende und kindliche Moment, das der imagina- tiven Identifikation des Nicht-Identischen innewohnt.
Keats formuliert. John Keats: Brief an George u. Tom Keats, In: Romanticism. An Anthology. Duncan Wu. Oxford: Blackwell George Watson. London: Dent Ist nicht Wallenstein das dienende Glied, das sich zum Stellvertreter, zum Statthalter, ja zum Herrscher aufwirft? Im Folgenden werden im fortlaufenden Text durch Versangaben auf den Text verwiesen. In diesem Zustand und durch dieses quid pro quo werden die Unterscheidungen des Verstandes unterlaufen. Potenziert wird die illu- sionierende Wirkung solcher imaginativer Ineinssetzungen, wenn sich an ihnen auch andere sichtbar beteiligen wie es paradigmatisch im Theater der Fall ist.
Jeder einzelne erkennt in den anderen die eigene Reaktion wieder. Und indem sie zu einem kollektiven Akt wird, bekommt sie auch eine gemein- schaftsstiftende Funktion. In: Jahrbuch der Deutschen Schillergesellschaft 36 Paris: Edition du Seuil Wie von diesem durch die Kunst erneuerten Glauben erweckt, tut sich als- bald die Wirkung der Eumeniden kund.
Die Sprache kann die Seele nicht wirk- lich zur Erscheinung bringen. One feature they share is an apparent uncertainty about how to end their plays: some- how they both wanted to build an optimistic, forward-looking conclusion onto a play that had presented apparently unresolvable contradictions. Nevertheless there is a notable absence of identifiable references or borrowings and the only con- crete evidence we have dates from the mids.
In Schiller wrote to Cotta asking to be sent copies of Der Hofmeister and Die Soldaten, and in the following year he persuaded Goethe to release various manuscripts for publi- cation in Die Horen.