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Pourquoi, d'ailleurs, faire des maths et pas juste donner un formulaire calculatoire pour Fourier? Et que, globalement, pour comprendre un concept, il faut se constituer un stock d'exemples et de contre-exemples permettant de faire fonctionner l'intuition cf. On va dire que le but du jeu est de les retrouver! Voir aussi cette question MathOverflow. Ce que L. Il s'agit de montrer que cette fonction f est calculable algorithmiquement.

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Je fais d'abord une tentative pour lever la confusion au sujet formalisme. Il y a une mise en abyme. Mais la preuve explicite! You just get used to them. De quoi s'agit-il? La solution est simple, mais on peut perdre beaucoup de temps en cherchant dans la mauvaise direction. C'est assez intuitif. Pas franchement passionnante, mais bon. L'exemple le plus simple est sans doute celui des nombres complexes. Je pourrais mettre une animation de ce genre sur YouTube.

Mais ensuite? Je vais y revenir. Mais peu importent les classifications. Tout cela est vraiment triste. C'est bien, et c'est normal. Alors on peut faire quelques images. Est-ce que ce fait est beau? Bon, la description ci-dessus est certainement assez obscure, mais je n'ai pas le temps d'expliquer mieux. C'est dire que je suis surpris par le tour de force. Du coup, je vais essayer de le faire ici, en utilisant massivement le copier-coller et le recherche-remplacement.

Je peux donner d'autres exemples. On verra bien. Similarity of polygenic profiles limits the potential for elite human physical performance. J Physiol ;— Healthy lifestyles of former Finnish world class ath- letes. Med Sci Sports Exerc ;— PLoS One ;6: e Eur J Public Health ;— Neurology ;— Disease-specific mortality among elite athletes.

Mortality and cardiovascular mor- bidity among long-term endurance male cross country skiers followed for 28—30 years. Scand J Med Sci Sports ;e—e Belli S, Vanacore N. Proportionate mortality of Italian soccer players: is amyotrophic lateral sclerosis an occupational disease? Eur J Epidemiol ;— Accuracy of death certificates for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis varies significantly from north to south of Italy: implications for mor- tality studies.

Neuroepidemiology ;— Drezner JA.

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Contemporary approaches to the identification of athletes at risk for sudden cardiac death. Detect, manage, inform: a paradigm shift in the care of athletes with cardiac disorders? Br J Sports Med ;—5. Reframing the debate: screening athletes to prevent sudden cardiac death. Heart Rhythm ;— Chugh SS. Early identificationof risk factors for sudden cardiac death. Nat Rev Cardiol ;— A comparison of death certificate out-of-hospital coronary heart disease death with physician-adjudicated sudden cardiac death.

Am J Cardiol ;— Women have been and still are underrepresented in research in many important areas of cardiology, and guidelines often include recommen- dations that are based on research performed predominantly in men. Recently, we have demonstrated that the majority of sports-related SCDs occurred in middle-aged adults, and that only a minority of such events occurred in young competi- tive athletes4 ; this latter group, however, has been the focus of the majority of publications until now. Methods and Results—From a prospective 5-year national survey, involving subjects 10 to 75 years old who presented withSCD resuscitatedornot duringcompetitiveorrecreationalsportactivities,43 5.

The level of activity at the time of SCD was moderate to vigorous in 35 cases The overall incidence of sport-related SCD, among to year-old women, was estimated as 0. Compared with men, the incidence of SCDs in women was dramatically lower, particularly in the to year range relative risk, 0. Despite similar circumstances of occurrence, survival at hospital admission Cause of death seemed less likely to be associated with structural heart disease in women compared with men Conclusions—Sports-related SCDs in women participants seems dramatically less common up to fold less frequent compared with men.

Our results also suggest a higher likelihood of successful resuscitation as well as less frequency of structural heart disease in women compared with men. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. Methods and results From a prospective 5-yearcommunity-based French registry concerning SCA during sports in 10—75 year-olds, we eval- uated whether outcomes differed significantly between geographic regions.

We then determined the extent to which variations in community-related early interventions were associated with regional variations in survival. Among SCA cases studied, overall survival at hospital discharge was Major differences were noted regarding bystander initiation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation Conclusion Major regional disparities exist in survival rates up to fold after SCA during sports.

SCA cases from regions with the highest levels of bystander resuscitation had the best survival rates to hospital admission and discharge. We aimed to describe overall mortality and main causes of deaths of male French rowers participating in at least one Olympic Game OG from to in comparison with the French general population. Main causes of deaths were obtained from the National registry from up to Mortality due to cardiovascular diseases is significantly reduced SMR: 0.

Conclusions: French Olympic rowers benefit of lower overall mortality compared with the French general population. Analytical studies with larger samples are needed to understand the reasons for such reductions. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Data Availability: The authors confirm that, for approved reasons, some access restrictions apply to the data underlying the findings.

The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Although high occurrence of cardiac diseases, and alterations on cardiovascular morphology has been previously reported in university rowers [3,4], epidemiological studies have described higher life expectancy in Harvard and Yale university rowers as in Oxford-Cambridge boat racers compared with their non-athletic referents [5,6].

If regular physical activity has been demonstrated to provide large health benefits [7—9] studies have reported that strenuous exercises and training of elite athletes could be associated with deleterious effects [10]: cardiac abnormalities [11,12] more likely triggering a sudden death during high demanding effort [13,14], with higher incidence rate among men varying according sports practice [15] and deregulated inflammatory responses [16]. In addition, training cessation after international career has showed to be deleterious in retired athletes [17—20].

Conversely, a recent meta-analysis of epidemiological studies has concluded that top- level athletes live longer than the general population [21]. Olympic Games OG are the highest competition level for rowing athletes; thus Olympians are exposed to the most extraneous training program and performance exigencies. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.

Email: juliana. In a study of life-span densities total number of life durations per birth date , we analyzed 19, Olympians and 1, supercentenarians deceased between and Among most Olympians, we observed a trend toward increased life duration. This trend, however, decelerates at advanced ages leveling off with the upper values with a perennial gap between Olympians and supercentenarians during the whole observation period. Similar tendencies are observed among supercentenarians, and over the last years, a plateau attests to a stable longevity pattern among the longest-lived humans. This topic is of great concern for public health and policymakers and has worldwide implications as it may affect the sustainability of modern societies and health care systems 1—3.

Yet, the issue of longev- ity trends has divided researchers and remains a matter of controversy 4. The origin of this divergence is not only a philosophical matter, but it is also supported by differing methods of investigation. Based on past life table trends, the prolongevist side claims that life expectancy will con- tinue to increase linearly 5,6. We propose an intermediate approach to investigate life-span trends with novel tools.

The approach consists in analyzing life-span density trends of two highly selected populations with a propensity to live longer. Their current maximum life-span trends may figure the general popula- tion in the near future. Conversely, a deceleration among longer lived cohorts could be seen as a sign of a close life-span limit 2. The first population selected was made up of all world- wide Olympic athletes that had participated in the Olympic Games and were already deceased.

Other sources analyzing Olympians longevity, whether medallists or not, have demonstrated a similar advantage 12, To the best of our knowledge, Olympians consti- tute the sole worldwide well-defined population that has a proven survival advantage, including all ethnicities and dat- ing back to the 19th century. The registered longest-lived member of any species defines its maximum life span The density analysis total number of life dura- tions per birth date reveals distinct life-span trends accord- ing to the number of subjects with time. Hence, it allows for a highly informative description of life-span upper limits and its relative relevance within the wide range of lifetime values.

Therefore, we aimed to describe life-span density trends of worldwide deceased Olympians and supercentenarians. Data came from the most authoritative source of Olympians biography Study Population—Supercentenarians A verified and validated complete cohort of deceased supercentenarians born after was collected from the Gerontology Research Group Life-span Density Function The life-span density of Olympians and supercentenar- ians was estimated over a two-dimensional mesh. The frame was defined within the intervals: X Olympians in [; ]; Y Olympians in [80; ]; and X supercentenarians in [; ]; Y supercentenarians in [; ].

The frame selected in X cor- responded to the first year forming a density layer up to the last year of a complete cohort. The life-span trends dynamics, for each birth date in the selected frame, was calculated by the sum of differences between adjacent densities in the Y life span direction see Supplementary Material. All analyses were performed using Matlab 7. The first Modern Games occurred in Thus, Olympians born before participated in the early edi- tions at a more advanced age Thedenserareas,correspondingtothelifespanthatconcen- trates the highest number of subjects, is formed by Olympians born between and that died around years-old.

None of the Olympians reached the status of supercen- tenarian; therefore, a gap separates the two populations throughout the entire period. The denser area among the supercentenarians is formed by subjects born between and that died around years-old. The convex envelope points out the Olympians life-span upper limit observed.

The density layers, below this convex envelope, move upward with birth date leveling off with the upper limit envelope. A similar pattern is present among supercentenarians. The densities layers above this envelope evolve with time, but the upper limit remains steady and a plateau may be visualized up to now. We observe a different slope progression of the density lines according to the life span.

The density slope of Olympians decelerates with time as their life span increases. Regarding supercentenarians, the density slope increases slightly with time at the beginning of the observation period, at a similar pace among the densities layers. Then, the density slopes remains stable for the upper values. This results in a plateau attesting a stable phenomenon among supercentenarians in recent years. Densification Phenomenon Life span increase leveling off with the upper values entails an accumulation of individuals close to the survival convex envelope and reveals a densification phenomenon.

The graphs describe an increased densification trend more continuous and more intense among supercentenar- ians than among Olympians. Discussion Learning From Leaders This study demonstrates the life-span trends in popu- lations with a propensity to live longer, Olympians and supercentenarians. Among Olympians, we observe a trend of increasing life duration, which slows down at advanced ages. Olympic participants undergo a highly selective pheno- typic process based on rare physiological aptness At the age of cohort entry, they were healthy subjects under favorable conditions genetic and environmental 17 reaching high standards of physical performances.

Studies have shown that Olympians have healthier lifestyles after their career and maintain a good physical condition All these factors contribute to greater longevity 18— Window: X Olympians in ; ; Y Olympians in [10;]; X supercentenarians in [;]; and Y supercentenarians in [;]. The vertical dashed line delimitates the complete cohort, when the population has entirely died out.

Isolated life spans are not represented in the figure because of their small density values. Beyond that age physical function or biomedical parameters may less accurately predict mortal- ity Despite the gap, Olympians and supercentenarians pre- sent similar life-span trends and densification phenomenon, intensified among supercentenarians.

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This common pattern may indicate that both populations are under similar mor- tality pressures, despite the different phenotypic selection criteria of each population. Such forces increase with age, and both populations respond similarly by a densification phenomenon. Concerning supercentenarians, the increasing den- sity slope at the beginning of the observation period may be related to the greater number of recruited subjects and to a more reliable registry. Thereafter, the stable trends observed attest for a life-span plateau over the recent years.

Accordingly, the life-span density trends provide no signs of a recent increased longevity pattern among the longest-lived, despite of an intense densification phenomenon. This scenario seems to be represented here, through the densification phenomenon, alluding to a rectangularization of the survival curves 22, To sup- port life-span extension forecasts, we would expect to find signs of expansion trends, people living each time longer at advanced ages 2.

Life-span Record Holders The fittest subjects of each country compose the world- wide Olympians cohort This population is mostly formed by athletes from regions that have historically dominated sport performances and the world record for life expectancy as well. A Contour of the life-span density layers of Olympians and supercentenarians. Selected window: X Olympians in [;] first year forming a density layer up to the last year of a complete cohort ; Y Olympians in [80;]; and X supercentenarians in [;]; Y supercentenarians in [;].

Graphs B and C represent the increase of the density layers with time in the direction of the upper life span values measuring the densification phenomenon. Even though in the absolute sense Olympians constitute a small subset of gifted athletes, validated super- centenarians compose an even smaller subset of outliers. The trend among most Olympians toward an increased lifetime throughout the century is similar to what has been described in terms of life expectancy 5,24 and life-span modal analyses 3 in record-holding countries.

Modal age at death, estimated in United States, Canada, and France, show similar increasing trends. Japan, however, has recently leveled off 3 comparably to Olympians life-span trend at advanced ages. The similar densification among Olympians and supercentenarians and their unclosing gap both strengthen the arguments defending that human biology may not allow most of us to become a centenarian Indeed, becoming one of them takes a complex sequence of rare and specific circumstances, involving constant favorable interactions between genetics 27 and environment Hence, it seems appropriate to distinguish the interpretation of actu- arial trends on all-cause mortality from biologic aging possibilities.

Method Considerations Our study reinforces biologic forecasts 10,25,29 con- trasting with extension claims 7,30, However, our period of observation is restricted, and the size of the pop- ulation studied is relatively small. In addition, life expec- tancy increase has been discontinuous due to historical changes; our cohorts could reveal a transitional trend only. After this period, all demographic forecasts are based on period life tables death rates from a calendar year applied to peo- ple still alive and remain speculative 9. The underlying assumptions are deterministic—based on the premise that the future will repeat past trends.

In addition, death rates at extremely older ages are uncertain Hence, analyzing a concrete cohort presenting a survival advantage may be an alternative method for understanding the present dynamics of maximal age trends. In light of the continuous reductions in mortality rates at advanced ages in high-income countries 6 possibly the den- sification phenomenon will intensify in most developed coun- tries. For instance, compression of deaths above the mode—a comparable measure for densification—has been observed in high-income countries 3.

Then, the probability of surviving people, pushing the limits forward and leading to a life-span extension may be bigger. However, this scenario defended by prolongevists, seems to be possible only if nutritional, cli- matic, social, or economic conditions continuously improve. Important medical and technological advances may also lead to life extension 31 , but major health determinants already contribute to reduce life expectancy progression in developed countries 33, In addition, the current tendency in world climate change and environmental resources degradation may result in adverse health consequences especially affect- ing the eldest individuals Conclusion Most Olympians follow the general population tendency of a life span increase with time, a trend which deceler- ates as life span increases.

At advanced ages, the slow pace on life duration progression leads to a densification of subjects dying simultaneously after reaching the highest ages. The common trends between Olympians and supercen- tenarians indicate similar mortality pressures over both populations. These forces increase with age, scenario bet- ter explained by a biologic barrier limiting further life-span progression. Although this forecast may be felt to be less optimistic, to consider the line of reasoning underlying it may contribute to a better understanding of life-span trends and better prevent what may decelerate further progression.

Kryger, and Carole Birkan- Berz for reading the manuscript and providing valuable advice. Conflicts of Interest The authors confirm that there are no conflicts of interest. All authors read and approved the final version of the manuscript. In search of Methuselah: estimat- ing the upper limits to human longevity. Increase of maxi- mum life-span in Sweden, Ouellette N, Bourbeau R. Changes in the age-at-death distribution in four low mortality countries: a nonparametric approach. Demographic Res. Couzin-Frankel J. A pitched battle over life span. Oeppen J, Vaupel JW. Broken limits to life expectancy.

Vaupel JW. Biodemography of human ageing. Ageing popu- lations: the challenges ahead. Hayflick L. Biological aging is no longer an unsolved problem. Ann N Y Acad Sci. Prospects for human longevity. Br Med J. Life at the extreme limit: phenotypic characteristics of supercentenar- ians in Okinawa.

Sur les fonctions réelles continues et le compactifié de Stone-Čech

Coles LS. Validated worldwide supercentenarians, living and recently deceased. Rejuvenation Res. Age Dordr. J Am Med Assoc. Natural selection to sports, later physical activity habits, and coro- nary heart disease. Age-specific and sex- specific mortality in countries, a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study Physical independence and mortality at the extreme limit of life span: supercentenarians study in Japan.

The future of human longevity. In: Uhlenberg P, ed. International Handbook of Population Aging. New York: Springer; — Kannisto V. Measuring the compression of mortality. Health span approximates life span among many supercentenarians: compression of morbidity at the approximate limit of life span.

Reductions in mor- tality at advanced ages: several decades of evidence from 27 countries. Popul Dev Rev. How long must humans live? Can human biology allow most of us to become centenarians? Survival of parents and siblings of supercentenarians. Stress biology and aging mechanisms: toward understanding the deep connection between adaptation to stress and longevity.

Demography of human supercentenarians. Wilmoth JR. Escape velocity: why the prospect of extreme human life extension matters now. PLoS Biol. NonagenariansandcentenariansinSwitzerland, a demographic analysis. J Epidemiol Community Health. Olshansky SJ. Projecting the future of U. Health Aff Proj Hope. Preston SH, Stokes A. Contribution of obesity to international differ- ences in life expectancy. Am J Public Health. Impact of climate change on elder health. Purpose: To analyze the parameters that influence the return to sport and performance after an ACL tear in French alpine skiers from to Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study.

Methods: The study population included male and female skiers who competed on the national French alpine ski team for at least 1 season between and in the speed downhill and super-G and technical disciplines giant slalom and sla- lom. Two groups were formed: group 1 G1 included athletes who had sustained an ACL rupture, and group 2 G2 included athletes who had never sustained an ACL rupture.

The mean 6 SD career length of G1 skiers men, 7. In addition, The mean age at ACL rupture was In G1, 55 podiums were achieved before ACL rupture and after in all com- petitions. Skiers who improved their performances after ACL rupture were significantly younger men, All skiers who had ACL tears continued their competitive careers after the injury. Conclusion: The overall results showed that it is possible to return to preinjury or even higher levels of performance after an ACL rupture and that age is the main element that guides postsurgical recovery.

Keywords: alpine skiing; ACL; return to performance Alpine skiing is the most popular winter sport in the world, and its participants are exposed to a high injury risk. The part of the body mostly affected is the knee, representing To our knowledge, return to sport and postinjury perfor- mance after ACL rupture in elite athletes have not been studied in alpine skiing. Researchers have investigated return to sport after an ACL rupture in the overall active population.

According to law, its approval there- fore did not fall under the responsibility of a committee for the protection of persons. For these reasons, it was not necessary to obtain informed consent from the athletes evaluated. This study was designed and monitored by the scientific committee of the Institute of bioMedical Research and Epidemiology in Sports. Study Population and Period The study population included all athletes, men and women, who competed on the national French alpine skiing team for at least 1 full season between and in all events: downhill and super-G speed disci- plines and giant slalom and slalom technical disci- plines.

All skiers had a specialty speed, technique, or polyvalent , but they competed in all disciplines. No other injuries were considered in this study. Competitions Only international-level competitions were taken into account. The World Cup takes place every year and deter- mines the best skier of the year in each discipline.

About 14 events are run in each discipline throughout the season. The World Championships are held every 2 years and the Olympic Games every 4 years, and winners are rewarded for 1 race in each discipline. Data Collection Skier Characteristics Databases of the French Ski Federation were used to col- lect the following information: name, sex, year of birth, year the skier joined and left the team, occurrence of ACL tear, and occurrence date. Performance Indicators Several performance indicators were selected, as follows. FIS Points. The FIS points system applies to skiers older than 15 years who are participating in international competitions.

The best annual FIS points of each skier, for each discipline and for each season during his or her time in the national team, was collected on the FIS website. Age at ACL rup- ture of skiers who had improved or deteriorated perfor- mance after rupture was calculated for the best FIS points obtained before and after the injury.

FIS International Ranking. For each skier in each disci- pline and in each season in the team, the best international FIS ranking was collected from on the FIS website. Statistical Analysis Performance distribution FIS points and international FIS ranking was determined by decile top decile of per- formances per athlete. The first decile is described in func- tion of G1 and G2, sex, and discipline.

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The number of podium finishes was recorded as a percentage in the group. The Student t test was used to compare the mean career lengths of G1 and G2 in each discipline and for each sex. The same test was performed to compare the mean age at the moment of ACL rupture of skiers who improved and skiers whose performances deteriorated after ACL tear.

Concerning the French top performance data, perfor- mance modeling of FIS was constructed as a function of age. The best performance by age is fitted by a second- degree polynomial function. AJSM Vol. Among them, skiers 67 men and 81 women suffered ACL ruptures 71 in speed disciplines, 76 in tech- nical disciplines, and 1 polyvalent , and men and women did not have any ACL rupture in their careers in speed disciplines, in technical disciplines, and 8 polyvalent.

Career Length From to , the mean career length for G1 athletes was significantly longer than that of G2 athletes Table 1. This difference was noted in the 2 sexes and in technical and speed disciplines. The number of events per athlete was 9. For women, it was 9. Statistically, the difference is not significant. Women appeared to suffer the injury significantly earlier, with a mean age of From athletes in G1, 34 In speed as in technical discipline, G1 athletes ranked bet- ter and had better FIS points than did G2 athletes Table 2.

The first decile of technical disciplines in G1 showed that men ranked better and had better FIS points than those of women 9. The same trend was noted in G2 men, 33rd rank and 7. In a comparison of pre- versus postinjury findings, ath- letes were able to improve their international FIS rankings and FIS points after the trauma Table 3. On the whole, 55 podiums were achieved before ACL rup- ture and after.

In all competitions, men had 37 podi- ums before ACL rupture, compared with 86 after it; as for women, 18 podiums were achieved before the injury, against 90 after it. In the World Figure 1. Incidence from to number of anterior cruciate ligament ruptures per number of skiers per year. Dashed lines indicate means. Championships, 1 podium finish was achieved before and 11 after. If we divide the number of podium finishes by the number of races, there were 0. Similarly, in the international FIS ranking, men who improved their rankings after ACL rupture were younger at the time of injury The same trend was noted among women, with a mean age of For skiers who improved after an ACL rupture, the best performance was achieved on average after 3.

The main results show that it is possible to find better performances after an ACL tear. This level depends on the age when the ACL rupture occurs. Our results confirm those reported by Pujol et al,23 in which the incidence of ACL rupture was related to the per- formance level. The French skiers in the international top 30 were the ones who had more ACL ruptures than their counterparts. G1, skiers with an anterior cruciate ligament rupture; G2, skiers with no anterior cruciate ligament rupture.

During ACL reconstruction, skiers stop all intensive trainings and competitions but remain under active recovery. This recovery may improve the physical and physiologic parameters of the athletes, opti- mizing their return to performance levels while providing rest from intense training. One study reported that high-risk athletes including alpine skiers have a lower prevalence of anxiety or depression disorders than do athletes in low-risk sports.

This score is also higher among skiers who have had an injury versus those who have never been injured. Similarly, skiers who were able to improve their perform- ances FIS points and international FIS rankings after an ACL injury were significantly younger than those who did not improve their performances after the injury. Women suffered ACL tears at Age is a crucial point in terms of return to perfor- mance, owing to the relationship between it and perfor- mance.

Berthelot et al4 showed the age of peak performance of the best world athletes to be The age at peak performance of top tennis players is The skiers who improved their performances after ACL rupture were young and had not yet reached the age of peak performance. This explains their higher probability of achieving better performance after injury. Conversely, skiers who did not find a better postinjury level of performance had an ACL tear later, thereby reducing the probabilities of reaching optimal performance after ACL rupture.

Many studies report a difference in rates of knee injuries between men and women. Among recreational as well as professional skiers, the incidence of knee injury is twice as high for women, and their risk of ACL injury is 3 times as high. This result shows that there is a maximum speed intrinsic to the dis- cipline whether technical or speed that leads skiers to regularly reach the limit if they want to be at the top world level.

Career Length From to , the career length of French alpine skiers is different between G1 and G2. Number of podium finishes before and after ante- rior cruciate ligament rupture by sex and competition. The same trend is observed for women, with a longer career length for G1 skiers compared with G2 skiers. These results confirm those reported by Pujol et al,23 which show that career length for skiers who suffered an ACL tear is significantly longer than for those who did not.

This could be explained in part by the time required for the recovery and reconstruction of the ACL of injured skiers, which extends their career length in the national team. Further- more, after the time of recovery, trainers establish a neces- sary regulation of the volume and load training for skiers in return after injury.

In our cohort, a longer career 9. The majority of skiers with better performances Another hypothesis justifying that G1 skiers have longer careers is the talent. G1 athletes could be more skilled than their counterparts without injury and thus lengthen their sporting careers. Today, career man- agement and, therefore, career duration require consider- ing these recurrences in particular because of the association of age with the recurrence. Ardern et al1 measured these parameters in several sports: soccer, Australian football, netball, and basketball.

Our results show that the time nec- essary to achieve better performance after ACL rupture is on average 3. Skiers in speed disciplines come back faster than skiers in technical disciplines men, 3. In a qualitative study, Tjong et al26 analyzed the rate of the return to sport and the factors affecting this return after an ACL reconstruction. Moreover, there is no link between the func- tional recovery of the knee after ACL rupture and partici- pation level or competition level before ACL rupture.

However, women return to a better level more so than the men Methodological Considerations This is an exhaustive study because it takes into account all French skiers since It represents the first epide- miologic study based on FIS points, the world FIS ranking, and podium finishes to analyze the influence of ACL injury in competitive alpine skiing. The FIS points system, repre- senting the main performance indicator of the study, has been regular and consistent since However, skiers may have suffered injuries other than ACL rupture during their careers.

The 4 specialties were categorized by speed disciplines downhill and super-G and technical disci- plines giant slalom and slalom to have a more rigorous number of subjects by sample. The moment when the ACL rupture occurs during the career influences the postinjury perfor- mance. The probability of obtaining better performance after this injury is higher if the rupture and subsequent recovery occur before the peak-performance age of 25 years.

The authors also thank Ms Emilie Janton for her helpful comments and critical reading of the article. Return-to-sport out- comes at 2 to 7 years after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery. Am J Sports Med. Return to the preinjury level of competitive sport after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruc- tion surgery: two-thirds of patients have not returned by 12 months after surgery.

Aging performance for masters records in athlet- ics, swimming, rowing, cycling, triathlon, and weightlifting. Exp Aging Res. Sensation seeking and injury risk in downhill skiing. Pers Individ Dif. Effects of modern ski equip- ment on the overall injury rate and the pattern of injury location in Alpine skiing. Clin J Sport Med. Laxity, instability, and func- tional outcome after ACL injury: copers versus noncopers. Injuries among male and female World Cup alpine skiers. Recording injuries among World Cup skiers and snowboarders: a methodological study.

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Intensity of exercise recovery, blood lactate disappearance, and sub- sequent swimming performance. J Sports Sci. Success and decline: top 10 ten- nis players follow a biphasic course. Effects of four recov- ery methods on repeated maximal rock climbing performance. Hunter RE. Skiing injuries. Neuromuscular performance characteristics in elite female athletes. Knee injuries in female athletes. International Ski Federation. Les gens courent de plus en plus ensemble. Les consommateurs qui D. Rouge comme une tomate, le gamin. Et ses pieds! Mettez-vous sur le trottoir un dimanche matin de marathon, vous allez vous marrer.

La honnnnte. Sinon, faisons appel. C'est ce que nous appelons Smart Coaching, depuis En savoir plus sur Polar. Ton haut du coooorps! Le jeudi, run rime avec fun. Le samedi mixe running et training. Infos sur nike. Infos sur BoostBastille, BoostOdeon…. Infos sur www. Les femmes, ces sportives, courent de plus en plus. Parce que oui, les femmes savent courir. Mieux : elles aiment courir. Technique surtout. Elles vont mieux avec le reste de mes affaires. Boulot running dodo Sans pour autant courir en grande pompe, la runneuse est tendance et moderne.

Et alors! Parfois, je rentre du boulot en courant. Courir plus pour perdre plus? Pour la forme et la silhouette. La course a clairement un impact sur mon moral. Je veux me prouver que je suis capable de faire telle ou telle distance. Courir ensemble dans une ambiance extraordinaire permet de renforcer les liens.

Nous soutenons ces initiatives. Et puis Paris est la plus belle ville du monde. En France, Schneider Electric est partenaire du F. Grenoble Rugby. Nous avons tout pour vous rendre meilleur. Ensuite, il vous faudra compter sur la chance. De la. Le concept? Elle se glisse dans la ceinture. Il partage ses sensations. Un record. Il ne faut surtout pas oublier de vous alimenter et de boire. Quelles sont les sensations? Ni bouffon, ni bouche-trou!

Les concurrents. Ce runner va amener des potes un peu sportifs avec qui il veut partager une aventure mais aussi des amis non sportifs. Prochaines So Mad : Bombannes 33 — 30 et 31 mai, Madine 55 — 20 et 21 juin, Torcy 77 — 19 et 21 septembre. Il faut montrer patte blanche. Rendez-vous le 29 mai Rendez-vous le 27 juin Renseignements : www. Le lieu de rendez-vous est en revanche beaucoup moins classique. Non, non.

Dostoievski - Les frères Karamazov - Livre 1 SOUS-TITRES, René Depasse

Et encore moins de confesser!