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Everyone wants to do it. Nobody knows how. This study does have several limitations, which provides possibilities for future investigations. There are a number of different social media types that are used by Generation Z, but these interactive ICT platforms were collectively analyzed in this inquiry, which could also be examined individually.

This investigation did not consider examining specific brand advertising, but examined social media marketing communications generically, which may also provide a channel for additional research. Generation Z are the heavy social media users, but a comparison of attitudinal responses from other cohorts to SNA could be assessed. This research only considered South Africa, which is an emerging country with its own set of unique and diverse cultural influences.

However, other developing and developed nations should be investigated to ascertain if Generation Z does indeed share homogeneous predispositions toward social media marketing communications. Table AI. Andrews , L. Arens , W. Azzie , A. Bagozzi , R. Balabanis , G. Bannister , A. Barenblatt , C.

Barker , M. Barry , T. Belch , G. Benhamou , L. Bevan-Dye , A. Bhattacherjee , A. Birn , R. Blumberg , B. Boateng , H. Bolton , R. Breitenbach , D. Bridges , E. Briesch , R. Brown , S. Bruner , G. Chandra , B. Cox , S. De Lanerolle , I. De Vos , A. Dlodlo , N. Du Toit , P. Duffett , R. Duh , H. Durvasula , S. Fox , R. Gensler , S. Grier , S. Gupta , S. Hamidizadeh , M. Tabriz , A. Harding , W. Hardwick , J. Heller , L. Hermine , G. Hoffman , D. Jaffit , D. James , A. Kabadayi , S. Kaushik , A. Kumar , V. Labrecque , L. Lavidge , R. Lazarevic , V. Lesame , N. Leung , X.

Liao , Z. Liu , S. Logan , K. Lukka , V. Luthans , F. McCrindle , M. MacKenzie , J. MacKenzie , S. Maddox , L. Maio , G. Malthouse , E. Maree , K. Matthee , C. Mehta , A. Meyerson , M. Moore , M. Mulero , O. Murphy , K. Nhlapo , S. Okazaki , S. Pallant , J. Pescher , C. Peters , K. Ognibeni , B. Petzer , D.

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Ruane , L. Safko , L. Sago , B. Schivinski , B. Shevel , A. Stokes , R. Swanepoel , H. Tan , W. Tennant , J. Tham , A. Thomas , L. Uitz , I. Walter , E. Weilbacher , W. Williams , A. Wright , R. Wronski , M. Yaakop , A. Yang , T. Yoo , C. Bottom line—offering a variety of choices is not always a good option. Continuing with the topic of irresistible offers, it turns out that when presented with one, we can quickly change our mind. A study from the Global Journal of Management and Business Research concluded that even though we often develop a very strong brand loyalty, we are willing to make other choices when presented with an irresistible offer.

For one, it should be a clear promise. When making decisions or even deciding on the next-best action, we tend to follow what people we consider authorities say or do. When it comes to online marketing, these cues would include a large social media following, previous publications on high-authority sites and so on. These cues force us to respect and obey people we deem authority figures more than we would do in other circumstances. Therefore, to improve the effectiveness of your marketing, you should focus on developing authority cues your audience will recognize.

This term was first introduced by George Loewenstein, and it refers to our underlying need to fill in any blanks in our knowledge. Consider Upworthy, for example — the site features mainly curiosity-driven headlines that on average receive percent more Facebook likes than headlines from other sites. I like his Barney Stinson style: Wait for it, wait for it, wait for it…and then boom! He comes out with the solution. A great thing about it is that sometimes his solution can be trivial and simple. Say what you need to say; if your content is curiosity driven, every word will be heard. Sometimes sociology and psychology can combine in interesting ways, however.

Psychologist Erik Erikson — created a theory of personality development based, in part, on the work of Freud. He noted that each stage of psycho-social child development was associated with the formation of basic emotional structures in adulthood. The outcome of the oral stage will determine whether someone is trustful or distrustful as an adult; the outcome of the anal stage, whether they will be confident and generous or ashamed and doubtful; the outcome of the genital stage, whether they will be full of initiative or guilt.

Child-raising techniques varied in line with the dominant social formation of their societies. So, for example, the tradition in the Sioux First Nation was not to wean infants, but to breastfeed them until they lost interest. This tradition created trust between the infant and his or her mother, and eventually trust between the child and the tribal group as a whole. On the other hand, modern industrial societies practised early weaning of children, which lead to a different, more distrustful character structure.

Children develop a possessive disposition toward objects that carries with them through to adulthood, as the child is eager to get things and grab hold of things in lieu of the experience of generosity and comfort in being held. Societies in which individuals rely heavily on each other and on the group to survive in a hostile environment will handle child training in a different manner, and with different outcomes, than societies that are based on individualism, competition, self-reliance and self-control Erikson Jean Piaget — was a psychologist who specialized in child development, focusing specifically on the role of social interactions in their development.

All three of these thinkers have contributed to our modern understanding of self development. One of the pioneering contributors to sociological perspectives on self-development was Charles Cooley — It is based on how we imagine we appear to others. This projection defines how we feel about ourselves and who we feel ourselves to be. Later, George Herbert Mead — advanced a more detailed sociological approach to the self.

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It is the novel, spontaneous, unpredictable part of the self: the part of the self that embodies the possibility of change or undetermined action. This flipping back and forth is the condition of our being able to be social. It is not an ability that we are born with Mead The case of Danielle, for example, illustrates what happens when social interaction is absent from early experience: she had no ability to see herself as others would see her.

During the preparatory stage , children are only capable of imitation: they have no ability to imagine how others see things. They copy the actions of people with whom they regularly interact, such as their mothers and fathers. This is followed by the play stage , during which children begin to imitate and take on roles that another person might have. However, they are still not able to take on roles in a consistent and coherent manner. Role play is very fluid and transitory, and children flip in and out of roles easily. During the game stage , children learn to consider several specific roles at the same time and how those roles interact with each other.

They learn to understand interactions involving different people with a variety of purposes.

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They understand that role play in each situation involves following a consistent set of rules and expectations. For example, a child at this stage is likely to be aware of the different responsibilities of people in a restaurant who together make for a smooth dining experience someone seats you, another takes your order, someone else cooks the food, while yet another person clears away dirty dishes. Mead uses the example of a baseball game.

Finally, children develop, understand, and learn the idea of the generalized other , the common behavioural expectations of general society. This capacity defines the conditions of thinking, of language, and of society itself as the organization of complex cooperative processes and activities. Moral development is an important part of the socialization process. Moral development prevents people from acting on unchecked urges, instead considering what is right for society and good for others.

Lawrence Kohlberg — was interested in how people learn to decide what is right and what is wrong. To understand this topic, he developed a theory of moral development that includes three levels: preconventional, conventional, and postconventional. In the preconventional stage, young children, who lack a higher level of cognitive ability, experience the world around them only through their senses. At this stage, people also recognize that legality and morality do not always match up evenly Kohlberg When hundreds of thousands of Egyptians turned out in to protest government corruption, they were using postconventional morality.

They understood that although their government was legal, it was not morally correct. Would females study subjects have responded differently? Would a female social scientist notice different patterns when analyzing the research? To answer the first question, she set out to study differences between how boys and girls developed morality. Boys tend to have a justice perspective, placing emphasis on rules and laws.

Ultimately, she explained that boys are socialized for a work environment where rules make operations run smoothly, while girls are socialized for a home environment where flexibility allows for harmony in caretaking and nurturing Gilligan , Bloom asserts that we are too focused on the appearance of young girls, and as a result, our society is socializing them to believe that how they look is of vital importance. And Bloom may be on to something.

How often do you tell a little boy how attractive his outfit is, how nice looking his shoes are, or how handsome he looks today?

To support her assertions, Bloom cites, as one example, that about 50 percent of girls ages three to six worry about being fat Bloom Sociologists are acutely interested in of this type of gender socialization, where societal expectations of how boys and girls should be —how they should behave, what toys and colours they should like, and how important their attire is—are reinforced.

One solution to this type of gender socialization is being experimented with at the Egalia preschool in Sweden, where children develop in a genderless environment. So what is the middle ground? Bloom suggests that we start with simple steps: when introduced to a young girl, ask about her favourite book or what she likes. In short, engage her mind … not her outward appearance Bloom Socialization is critical both to individuals and to the societies in which they live.

It illustrates how completely intertwined human beings and their social worlds are. First, it is through teaching culture to new members that a society perpetuates itself. Whatever is distinctive about a culture must be transmitted to those who join it in order for a society to survive. For Canadian culture to continue, for example, children in Canada must learn about cultural values related to democracy: they have to learn the norms of voting, as well as how to use material objects such as a ballot.

Of course, some would argue that it is just as important in Canadian culture for the younger generation to learn the etiquette of eating in a restaurant or the rituals of tailgate parties after softball games. Socialization is just as essential to us as individuals. Social interaction provides the means via which we gradually become able to see ourselves through the eyes of others, learning who we are and how we fit into the world around us.

In addition, to function successfully in society, we have to learn the basics of both material land nonmaterial culture, everything from how to dress ourselves to what is suitable attire for a specific occasion; from when we sleep to what we sleep on; and from what is considered appropriate to eat for dinner to how to use the stove to prepare it. Most importantly, we have to learn language—whether it is the dominant language or one common in a subculture, whether it is verbal or through signs—in order to communicate and to think.

As we saw with Danielle, without socialization we literally have no self. We are unable to function socially. Some experts assert that who we are is a result of nurture —the relationships and caring that surround us. Others argue that who we are is based entirely in genetics. According to this belief, our temperaments, interests, and talents are set before birth.

From this perspective, then, who we are depends on nature. One way that researchers attempt to prove the impact of nature is by studying twins. Some studies followed identical twins who were raised separately. The pairs shared the same genetics, but, in some cases, were socialized in different ways. Instances of this type of situation are rare, but studying the degree to which identical twins raised apart are the same and different can give researchers insight into how our temperaments, preferences, and abilities are shaped by our genetic makeup versus our social environment.

For example, in , twin girls born to a mentally ill mother were put up for adoption. However, they were also separated from each other and raised in different households. The parents, and certainly the babies, did not realize they were one of five pairs of twins who were made subjects of a scientific study Flam In , the two women, then age 35, reunited. Elyse Schein and Paula Bernstein sat together in awe, feeling like they were looking into a mirror. Not only did they look alike, but they behaved alike, using the same hand gestures and facial expressions Spratling Studies like these point to the genetic roots of our temperament and behaviour.

On the other hand, studies of identical twins have difficulty accounting for divergences in the development of inherited diseases. In the case of schizophrenia, epidemiological studies show that there is a strong biological component to the disease. The closer our familial connection to someone with the condition, the more likely we will develop it. However, even if our identical twin develops schizophrenia we are less than 50 percent likely to develop it ourselves. Why is it not percent likely? What occurs to produce the divergence between genetically identical twins Carey ?

Though genetics and hormones play an important role in human behaviour, biological explanations of human behaviour have serious deficiencies from a sociological point of view, especially when they are used to try to explain complex aspects of human social life like homosexuality, male aggressiveness, female spatial skills, and the like. Despite growing up apart do they share common racial, class, or religious characteristics?

Aside from the environmental or epigenetic factors that lead to the divergence of twins with regard to schizophrenia, what happens to the social standing and social relationships of a person when the condition develops? What happens to schizophrenics in different societies? How does the social role of the schizophrenic integrate him or her into a society or not? Whatever the role of genes or biology in our lives, genes are never expressed in a vacuum. Environmental influence always matters. Factory worker. Chris Langan spent the majority of his adult life just getting by with jobs like these.

He had no college degree, few resources, and a past filled with much disappointment. Chris Langan also had an IQ of over , nearly points higher than the average person Brabham Gladwell looked to a recent study conducted by sociologist Annette Lareau in which she closely shadowed 12 families from various economic backgrounds and examined their parenting techniques. These parents were more likely to engage in analytical conversation, encourage active questioning of the establishment, and foster development of negotiation skills. The parents were also able to introduce their children to a wide range of activities, from sports to music to accelerated academic programs.

When one middle class child was denied entry to a gifted and talented program, the mother petitioned the school and arranged additional testing until her daughter was admitted. Lower-income parents, however, were more likely to unquestioningly obey authorities such as school boards. Their children were not being socialized to comfortably confront the system and speak up Gladwell What does this have to do with Chris Langan, deemed by some as the smartest man in the world Brabham ?

Chris was born in severe poverty, moving across the country with an abusive and alcoholic stepfather. After accepting a full scholarship to Reed College, his funding was revoked after his mother failed to fill out necessary paperwork. Such knowledge was never part of his socialization. Chris gave up on school and began working an array of blue-collar jobs, pursuing his intellectual interests on the side. Sociologists all recognize the importance of socialization for healthy individual and societal development. But how do scholars working in the three major theoretical paradigms approach this topic?

Chapter 5. Socialization

Structural functionalists would say that socialization is essential to society, both because it trains members to operate successfully within it and because it perpetuates culture by transmitting it to new generations. A critical sociologist might argue that socialization reproduces inequality from generation to generation by conveying different expectations and norms to those with different social characteristics.

For example, individuals are socialized differently by gender, social class, and race. As in the illustration of Chris Langan, this creates different unequal opportunities. An interactionist studying socialization is concerned with face-to-face exchanges and symbolic communication. For example, dressing baby boys in blue and baby girls in pink is one small way that messages are conveyed about differences in gender roles. Socialization helps people learn to function successfully in their social worlds. How does the process of socialization occur? How do we come to adopt the beliefs, values, and norms that represent its nonmaterial culture?

This learning takes place through interaction with various agents of socialization, like peer groups and families, plus both formal and informal social institutions. Social groups often provide the first experiences of socialization. Families, and later peer groups, communicate expectations and reinforce norms. People first learn to use the tangible objects of material culture in these settings, as well as being introduced to the beliefs and values of society. Family is the first agent of socialization.

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Mothers and fathers, siblings and grandparents, plus members of an extended family, all teach a child what he or she needs to know. As you are aware, either from your own experience as a child or your role in helping to raise one, socialization involves teaching and learning about an unending array of objects and ideas. It is important to keep in mind, however, that families do not socialize children in a vacuum. Many social factors impact how a family raises its children. For example, we can use sociological imagination to recognize that individual behaviours are affected by the historical period in which they take place.

Sixty years ago, it would not have been considered especially strict for a father to hit his son with a wooden spoon or a belt if he misbehaved, but today that same action might be considered child abuse. Sociologists recognize that race, social class, religion, and other societal factors play an important role in socialization. For example, poor families usually emphasize obedience and conformity when raising their children, while wealthy families emphasize judgment and creativity National Opinion Research Center This may be because working-class parents have less education and more repetitive-task jobs for which the ability to follow rules and to conform helps.

Wealthy parents tend to have better educations and often work in managerial positions or in careers that require creative problem solving, so they teach their children behaviours that would be beneficial in these positions. This means that children are effectively socialized and raised to take the types of jobs that their parents already have, thus reproducing the class system Kohn Likewise, children are socialized to abide by gender norms, perceptions of race, and class-related behaviours.

In Sweden, for instance, stay-at-home fathers are an accepted part of the social landscape.

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  6. A government policy provides subsidized time off work—68 weeks for families with newborns at 80 percent of regular earnings—with the option of 52 of those weeks of paid leave being shared between both mothers and fathers, and eight weeks each in addition allocated for the father and the mother. This encourages fathers to spend at least eight weeks at home with their newborns Marshall Overall 90 percent of men participate in the paid leave program. In Canada on the other hand, outside of Quebec, parents can share 35 weeks of paid parental leave at 55 percent of their regular earnings.

    Only 10 percent of men participate. In Quebec, however, where in addition to 32 weeks of shared parental leave, men also receive five weeks of paid leave, the participation rate of men is 48 percent. In Canada overall, the participation of men in paid parental leave increased from 3 percent in to 20 percent in because of the change in law in that extended the number of combined paid weeks parents could take. How will this effect differ in Sweden and Canada as a result of the different nature of their paternal leave policies? A peer group is made up of people who are similar in age and social status and who share interests.

    Peer group socialization begins in the earliest years, such as when kids on a playground teach younger children the norms about taking turns or the rules of a game or how to shoot a basket. As children grow into teenagers, this process continues. Peer groups are important to adolescents in a new way, as they begin to develop an identity separate from their parents and exert independence. Additionally, peer groups provide their own opportunities for socialization since kids usually engage in different types of activities with their peers than they do with their families.

    The social institutions of our culture also inform our socialization. Formal institutions—like schools, workplaces, and the government—teach people how to behave in and navigate these systems.

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    Other institutions, like the media, contribute to socialization by inundating us with messages about norms and expectations. Most Canadian children spend about seven hours a day, days a year, in school, which makes it hard to deny the importance school has on their socialization. In elementary and junior high, compulsory education amounts to over 8, hours in the classroom OECD Students are not only in school to study math, reading, science, and other subjects—the manifest function of this system.

    Schools also serve a latent function in society by socializing children into behaviours like teamwork, following a schedule, and using textbooks. School and classroom rituals, led by teachers serving as role models and leaders, regularly reinforce what society expects from children. Sociologists describe this aspect of schools as the hidden curriculum , the informal teaching done by schools.

    For example, in North America, schools have built a sense of competition into the way grades are awarded and the way teachers evaluate students. When children participate in a relay race or a math contest, they learn that there are winners and losers in society.